This chapter deals with the literature reappraisal which is a study of what has been published on the subject by qualified bookmans. This chapter will give an penetration on the environmental impact appraisal, its stairss, effectivity and failings, followed by the construct of biodiversity and a critical reappraisal of two articles related to the subject. Lastly it elaborates on touristry development on Ile aux Cerfs.
2.1 Environmental Impact Assessment ( EIA )
EIA was set up to cover with concerns about the effects that chief development undertakings were holding on the environment. It is of import to cognize that EIA is an environment appraisal tool. A really straightforward definition of EIA is that it is “ a methodical process of identifying, foretelling, analyzing, measuring and extenuating all the environmental effects a hereafter development or activity before puting up the undertaking ” ( United Nations, 2001 ) .
The EIA besides considers the natural, socio cultural and economic aspects.EIA and the of import stairss which need to be carried out to carry through the appraisal is covered by the ISO 14011. EIA is besides the most popular and recognized instrument used to mensurate environmental impacts for new or planned undertakings ( Schianetz et al.2007 ) .
The important ground of why an EIA is needed is to forestall dearly-won error in a undertaking executing. These dearly-won errors can originate either by the negative environmental impacts that are like to happen during the undertaking execution or by the changes that are required afterwards in order to do the development environmentally suited to authorities and community.
2.1.1 Concepts and Options of EIA
An environmental Impact Assessment supports assorted constructs viz. Ecotourism, Cleaner Production, Eco-labelling but the two most supported constructs are Environmental Management and Tourism Carrying Capacity ( Schianetz et al. 2007 ) .
As already reference above EIA is an environment appraisal tool. There are many other tools used which can mensurate the impacts of the environment. Some of the tools are Sustainability indexs, Ecological footmark, Life Cycle Assessment, Strategic environmental Assessment and Environmental Auditing.
Sustainable indexs are largely used for measuring touristry finishs. Ecological footmark ( EF ) assesses the extent to which human race is utilizing and devouring nature ‘s resources more quickly than they can renew ( Schaefer et al. 2006 ) . Life rhythm appraisal ( LCA ) is a methodological construction for ciphering about and measuring the environmental impacts for the life rhythm of a merchandise such as the exhaustion of resources like land, H2O, gasoline coal and other natural resources ( Rebitzeret al. 2004 ) . Strategic Environmental Assessment ( SEA ) is a tool that permits to set together environmental concerns along with societal and economic facet and which is besides an appraisal on a policy degree ( Dalal-Clayton, Sadler, 2005 ) . Environmental Auditing ( EA ) is a tool that a company can utilize to place the degree of its environmental impacts, happen out whether or non the company is in understanding with valid Acts of the Apostless, regulations, and the outlooks of its stakeholders, and increases cognition on how it can keep or come on its environmental public presentation traveling frontward ( Mattsson and Olsson, 2001 ) .
2.1.2 Stairss for EIA
Werner ( 1992 ) had recommended that EIA can be used as a agencies in make up one’s minding if a undertaking is feasible and suited, otherwise it can besides be a agencies to be after how negative effects of an acknowledged development can be reduced.
Furthermore, Roberts and Hunter ( 1992 ) have stated that EIA stairss differ from a location to another, but at the development degree, there are four cardinal criterions that are largely put into pattern. The four criterions are as follows:
The features of a development and related activities should be identified by an EIA.
The aspects of the environment that will be concerned should be recognized.
The effects at the beginning and extroverted phases should be assessed.
EIA is related about the direction of the benefits and alarmed about the negative impacts that can be generated.
On the other manus, the International Institute for Environment and Development ( IIED ) mentioned the different stages of an EIA as follows:
EIA survey and environmental impact statement
Screening is carried out to measure if a development requires EIA. Its chief concentration is about the effects it may hold or if there are impacts that are diffident. Then finally it will concentrate on the state of affairss where environmental supervising attempt may be indispensable. Hence EIA schemes may most of the clip incorporate a records or scheme qualifying which undertakings need EIA ( ex: invariably or specific state of affairss ) .
Thinking of possible options ( demand, activity, topographic point, development & A ; purpose, puting up, part, ‘no undertaking ‘ ) ought to be established prior to a choice being prepared. Some developments can be peculiarly on site ( antique: excavation, extraction takes topographic point merely where there is a mineral site ) . In such fortunes EIA may give excess attendings on actions such as graduated table, warranting actions and traffic supervising. Ventures promoted by authorities bureaus might likely see alternate locations or paths for development instead than private section strategies where the premature demands to obtain options or purchase land strongly controls development topographic point.
This is where testing recommends extra rating is required or if there is improbableness about the nature of possible effects. There is the usage of speedy rating methods although there is the presence of adequate item to detect cardinal impacts, their extent and effect, and measure their significance for determination devising. Below are stairss that will exemplify if a complete EIA is required.
A ‘narrowing ‘ process often started by an ‘assessment squad ‘ to acknowledge the cardinal jobs of apprehensiveness at an early stage in the planning class of action and direct the development of conditions of mention for the EIA. It assists location choice, recognizes possible options, and evades break due to holding to measure once undisclosed likely impacts. Scoping must prosecute all interested parties such as the booster or environmental bureaus and public members. The results set up the range, deepness and footings of mention to be addressed within Environmental Impact Statement ( below ) . Once the location for development has been selected, the figure of jobs normally diminishes and consideration to specific inside informations is enhanced.
Main EIA Study
Building and widening the old stages to calculate the sum and degree of effects and find their importance. A scope of strategies can be used including: checklists, questionnaires and webs theoretical accounts. The survey should include consideration of extenuating measures- measuring the action proposed/ taken to avoid or cut down current or likely negative impacts of a undertaking. However if there are scruples to a high extent, likely serious results and no justifying actions, so the proposed undertaking ought to be abandoned. However if there are scruples that can be decreased with a more in deepness surveies, so a claim can be postponed until farther surveies.
Environmental Impact Statement
It is a complete study that states the decisions of the EIA and is most of the clip asked by jurisprudence before a new venture can get down.
To measure the satisfactoriness of the EIA to determination devising and believe about its reverberations.
Oversing of undertaking achievement and action, an finally an audit of the undertaking after its completion.
2.1.3 Effectiveness of EIA
EIA may better and provides uninterrupted possibility on the long tally for assorted undertakings. EIA has the chance to offer the possibility to detect from know-how of comparable undertakings maintain off from the ( habitually elevated ) disbursals that may originate subsequently warranting unexpected harmful and damaging effects.
2.1.4 Weakness of EIA
Critic is a critical portion of every theory, process tool or construct. Criticism of EIA has been debated by many writers in many surveies. One of the most common critics is that EIA merely considers the direct impact of a development or activity but non the add-on to the lifting impacts in the country, Simpson and Wall, ( 2000 ) . EIA can non be used for the appraisal of whole touristry finishs but merely for specific undertakings such as airdromes, eco-resorts, activity or development near the beach, Schianetz et Al. ( 2007 ) . EIA is besides criticized as it lone trades with extenuating negative impacts instead than seting the attempt in increasing the positive impacts, Simpson and Wall, ( 2000 ) .
However Biswas ( 1992a ) and Hunter ( 1995a ) have stated that stairss of EIA have its lack. Harmonizing to both writers, there is a tendency that EIA concentrate more merely on physical impacts and disregard societal and cultural 1s. EIA repeatedly concentrates on biophysical affairs and where environment, societal and economic characteristics are dealt with, they are non normally included but alternatively EIA studies have the inclination to be illustrated as separate phases.
In popular use, the word biodiversity is frequently used to depict all the species populating in a peculiar country ( www.cnx.org ) . Sing the “ peculiar country ” in a really big graduated table, biodiversity is merely all the life on the planet Earth. The concern dictionary defines biodiversity as the “ Variety and variableness of microbial, works, and carnal life signifiers from all beginnings ( including terrestrial, Marine and other aquatic ecosystems ) and of the ecological composites of which they are a portion ” . In the context of this peculiar survey, biodiversity and touristry is to be studied.
The recent tendency in the touristry industry has it that that nowadays more and more tourers have abandoned the celebrated sea, sand and Sun, and tends more towards the nature based experience ( www.unwto.de ) . A sound nature is progressively being mentioned by tourers when they are taking their finishs. The quality of the environment, hence, can non be neglected as a critical factor in the nowadays touristry tendencies. However, tourers go to a finish where the environment plays a cardinal function at the finish. There is hence an pressing demand for a sustainable direction programme and which tends to utilize natural resources in a sustainable mode. It is besides to observe that the twelvemonth 2010 has been declared the international twelvemonth if biodiversity.
2.2.1 Associating Biodiversity to Tourism
Undertakings have already started refering biodiversity and touristry. The most crying illustration is in Thailand which was struck by the Tsunami in the twelvemonth 2004. Issues such as energy efficiency, security of tourers and climatic alterations have been set up. As stated earlier, those issues impact straight on tourism.A Building on this, the “ Program for Energy Efficiency ” wasA launched Thailand to extenuate the effects of clime alteration.
Mauritius Island contains endemic species which are alone to the universe but are plagued by monolithic population lessening. In the old ages 1500 and onwards the island was uninhabited by worlds. After the landing of the Dutch, the debut of non-native works and animate being species, biodiversity still booming started to be endangered. The 400 old ages following the first ‘altercation ‘ in the Mauritian ‘s ecosystem, population of native birds, reptilians, and trees started to diminish and threatened to go nonextant. The uninterrupted lessening in the population of the life beings threatened the life rhythm such as the reproduction procedure and the balance of nature.
We can non pretermit the fact that touristry has been turning and in biodiversity hot spots. Thus the speedy growing in nature touristry and travel within the touristry industry for the past 2 decennaries, it may be said that the touristry ‘s growing in those high biodiversity countries is because of the 1 and lone nature and environment found at those hot spots. The devastation of this facet of a finish is like rupturing apart the topographic point and this forgetting decidedly about touristry in that peculiar country.
“ Ecotourism is an thought that is endangering touristry. Defined as the ‘responsible travel to natural countries, that conserves the environment and sustains the well being of local people, ‘ ecotourism reformats the basic constructs behind touristry. Nature touristry is defined as travel to good topographic points to see and bask nature. Nature and escapade touristry focal point on what the tourer is looking for. Ecotourism focuses on what the tourer does and the impact of this travel on both the environment and the people at the finish ” ( Honey 2002 ) .
The touristry industry states that it contributes to sustainable development because ‘it has less impact on the environment than other industries ‘ and is based on a specific country and so the local people are more motivated to protect those resources. “ Biodiversity is therefore a critical constituent of the natural environment that tourists enjoy ” ( Mattus et al. 2003 ) . In add-on to resource being on the brink of stoping and habitat devastation, littering and H2O pollution are jobs, linked to the touristry industry, decidedly have a bad impact for biodiversity. Littering job is fluent in some countries, where waste aggregation and direction is hard. Waste disposal from sails are beginnings of jobs due to the fact that they merely have a limited infinite to transport all their waste until they reach the port, and ports have limited inducement ( and capacity ) to suit those waste.
Coral reefs are at hazard from touristry development. Holden ( 2000 ) states that “ every bit good as being mined for edifice stuffs, reefs suffer from sewerage overflow that stimulates the growing of algae, covering the filter-feeding corals and impeding their ability to last. ” Corals are damaged by ground tackles of boats from careless skippers and local people frequently take corals from their place home ground for sale. Again the tourer benefits is that the funding beginning stated by Brandon ( 1996 ) may assist for happening alternate sustainable ways for the local people to gain their life and to establish developing programmes to skippers and other staffs from the touristry industry.
There is an pressing demand to extenuate those impacts and to advance ecotourism activities which have emerged in the old ages 1980s and 1990s so as to hold a sound environment and to advance the touristry sector at a finish because as said, the touristry industry is traveling more and more towards finish with a alone biodiversity.
2.2.2 Environmental Impacts of Tourism Development
The Tourism Industry is said to be straight linked to the environment. The ground is that tourers chiefly travel to be in a natural and green environment. Most of the hotels are found near the seashore or on the Mountains. Many islands and states use the environment as an property to advance touristry. The Maldives promote the archipelagos with the sea, sand and Sun. It is besides the instance for the Caribbean Island which depends on its natural beauty and resources for the success of the touristry industry.
In a study “ Analyzing the relationship between Tourism and the Environment in Barbados and St. Lucia ” , by Reginald I Burke, the importance of environment to the touristry sector was clearly mentioned. However the writer states that “ Tourism and the back uping substructure that it requires pose menaces to the environment peculiarly, the Marine, coastal and tellurian ecosystems every bit good as drinkable H2O resources ” .
The positive impact of touristry on the environment is that it brings along gross for the saving and preservation of Parkss and rare animate beings. The touristry industry can do a important part to the preservation of the finish. In fact, touristry can be a beginning of finance for biodiversity preservation, for illustration portion of the entryway fee for a site goes to the preservation programme ( Brandon 1996 ) . The financess may be used in the sense that the local people can be provided with alternate occupations alternatively of working the biodiversity for life. Tourists who visit an country may observe abnormalcies in a specific country that local people, who are use to it, may non observe. Tourism can besides be a manner to increase consciousness on the environment. Tourists are more witting of the environmental protection before traveling to an country.
Tourism besides impacts on the environment in a negative manner. During the development stage, there is a demand to cut down trees so as to be able to build hotels and other installations that the tourers need. With the increasing in population, land is a limited resource that needs to be good utilised. The cutting down of trees frequently lead to devastation of home grounds of animate beings ‘ life. It has besides been noted that in countries where there has been tonss of infrastructural development, there is less rainfall. It is of import to hold a good land usage land.
The touristry industry is one which produces tonss of waste. These wastes are frequently released in the environment or the sea. The sewerage system frequently goes straight in the sea for the resorts and the sails. These wastes cause a debasement of the H2O quality and putting to deaths marine life. The coral reefs died and the beaches become vulnerable to moving ridges taking to sand eroding.
The Red Sea, in Egypt, has ever been a touristry attractive force. Sherbiny et Al. ( 2006 ) states that with the touristry development along the Red Sea, where there has been the development of recreational attractive forces and athletics activities, has lead to the devastation of the “ resource base ” of the Red Sea.
The environment needs to be preserved because it will profit the touristry industry and convey a batch term net income. Tour operators and hotels are seeking to cut down wastage and pollution to rejuvenate the environment that has been destroyed. They opted for eco-friendly activities and sensitise the tourers before traveling on a site. It is really of import that before implementing any development an EIA is done. The EIA will assist to place failings and the impact on the environment and what can be done to cut down or even extinguish the impacts.
2.3 Case Studies
It is of import, before traveling more in dept in a survey, to look at definitions and stairss but besides at different instances. The EIA tool is used all around the universe by developed, developing states and islets. Therefore through several readings of old application of the tool at a finish, some more failings or even strengths of the EIA can be identified because each part is non the same and have peculiar resources and features.
2.3.1 Evaluation of the EIA system on the Island of Mauritius and development of an environmental monitoring program framework ( T. Ramjeawon, R. Beedassy, 2004 )
Harmonizing to Ortolano and Shepherd ( 1995 ) , Environmental impact appraisal ( EIA ) is a planning tool used to calculate and measure the impacts of planned undertakings in order to help the determination devising procedure. The limited natural resources of an island dictate its capacity to let and prolong development. Islands face serious environmental jobs due to their scarceness of natural resources, exposure to natural catastrophes, reduced countries, economic exposure and failing in ecosystems. Therefore it is really of import for island-dwellers to understand and implement preventative schemes to hold sustainable development.
The demand to transport out an Environmental impact appraisal ( EIA ) and to obtain an EIA licence from the ministry before set abouting the undertaking is one of the chief characteristics of the Environment Protection Act in Mauritius. EIA brought of import betterments in the planning, planing and determination devising procedure but many troubles have been encountered in the execution of the EIA system.
Without proper follow-up EIA can be seen as a merely paper to procure a development license instead than a mean to guarantee environmental benefits and holding proper environmental direction. The rapid developments around the seashore and deficiency of EIA monitoring have negative impacts on the coastal environment and this can impact the sustainable development of the touristry industry.
The EIA system was introduced in 1993 ; those desiring to use for an EIA licence must subject transcripts ( 15 ) of the EIA study to the Director of environment and to guarantee about the truth of the study it is opened for public review and remarks. A transcript of the EIA study is distributed to concerned bureaus and ministries and written feedback is requested. The Environmental Assessment unit of the section of environment organizes a site visit to measure the possible environmental deductions of the proposed development.
Leu et Al. ( 1996 ) introduced 9 cardinal constituents for an effectual EIA system which are:
Environmental ordinances, guidelines and policies.
Environmental administrative construction
Role of those which are involved.
Status of the EIA studies
EIA conformity monitoring and enforcement
The execution of strategic Environmental appraisal
The 9 constituents were largely followed for the rating of the EIA System in Mauritius. Nine hotels built during the last 5 old ages were selected to develop the Environmental Monitoring program ( EMP ) and the EIA studies were evaluated by verifying their conformity with the official guiding rules of executing EIA.
The quality of the EIA was assessed upon the undermentioned standards:
Drawings and programs
Techniques and methodological analysis used to foretell impacts
Field studies every bit good as consistence in the analysis
Relevance of proposed steps
Monitoring program of impacts
Impartiality of the contents of the EIA
In the last 15 old ages much has been achieved in set uping legal and institutional model in footings of environmental direction in Mauritius. However most of the bing environmental Torahs are improperly enforced due to a deficiency of consciousness of the Torahs and a deficiency of capacity and resources in the authorities sections.
The undermentioned failings were identified in the EIA procedure:
The showing system is non equal
The minimal scope of demands of the EIA is excessively general to guarantee the proper assemblage of information for determination doing procedure of whether or non to publish and EIA licence.
There is hapless public engagement in the undertaking from the beginning till the execution stage.
There is a deficiency of clear standards for the enrollment of eligible advisers for the readying of an EIA study.
The processs for reexamining EIA and allowing licences lack in transparence and liability and there is no clip frame sing EIA applications.
There is a deficiency of strategic environmental appraisal for coastal development in peculiar countries.
There is a deficiency of trained staff and expertness to carry on every bit good as reappraisal EIAs.
The EIA studies do non include environmental direction programs.
One of the major assets of the touristry industry which is the laguna is being left apart and there are no or deficient probes carried out on the properties of the laguna.
More weight is being given to the economin impacts in the concluding determination devising procedure and there is deficiency of information in the EIA studies.
2.3.2 A Critical Review of Environmental Impact Statements in Sri Lanka with Particular Reference to Ecological Impact Assessment ( Miriya Samarakoon ? John S. Rowan, 2008 )
EIA is a tool used to foretell environmental effects of proposed undertaking in order to accomplish sustainable development. Harmonizing to Treweek ( 1996 ) Ecological Impact Assessment ( EcIA ) is an of import component of EIA which explores how the sensitiveness, viability and value of home grounds, ecosystems and species can be affected by developments. An Environmental Impact Statement ( EIS ) is an official study about the consequences of EcIA and EIA.
EIA has been criticized for the undermentioned grounds:
Lack of clip and support
Lack of research design
Insufficient informations on vegetations and zoologies
Failure in monitoring development impacts
Lack of guidelines on the EcIA procedure
The first EIA in Sri Lanka was conducted in 1980 and the legal model is under the National Environment Regulations No.1 of the National Environment Act ( NEA ) . There are 2 degrees of EA which are stated in the NEA. The first degree is the Initial Environmental Examination ( IEE ) which is required when less inauspicious impact is expected and the 2nd degree is the EIA for developments where important inauspicious impacts are expected.
The Central Environment Authority ( CEA ) is the establishment which is responsible for monitoring and pull offing the EA procedure and the Project Approving Agencies ( PAAs ) are responsible for the execution of the EA procedure every bit good as the determination devising procedure.
Sri Lanka is well-known for its biodiversity and 5 degrees of ecological surveying are recognized. Level 1 study is about a brief overview of the ecology at the site and degree 5 is the most complex degree which is about roll uping quantitative informations on assorted cardinal properties of ecology. EA ‘s must pay particular attending to their appraisal and effectual steps must be taken so as to avoid possible negative impacts.
2.4 Overview of Tourism Industry
Tourism is the universe ‘s largest growing industry. Organization such as the universe touristry organisation province that in the following 15 old ages the figure of tourer will increase from 845 million in 2006 to 1.6 billion by 2020 that is it will duplicate.
Furthermore 200m people are employs worldwide. These occupations really frequently occur in little or moderate-sized, family-owned endeavors. Similarly these touristry occupations and development really frequently take topographic point in fewer development states that will assist to equilibrate economic chances. For illustration in order to profit from balance economic chances Mauritius which is an developing state is taking 2m tourer by 2015.
2.4.1 Tourism development in Mauritius
Tourism developments in Mauritius are based chiefly on the 3s that is sea, Sun and sand. By trusting on the 3s, this causes the tourers being kept within the four walls of the epicurean hotels. Epicurean hotel is one of the major touristry developments in Mauritius. Larger international company such as Sun Resort Ltd has constructed epicurean and glamour hotels such as “ Le Touessrock Hotel ” , “ La Pirogue Hotel ” and “ Long Beach Hotel ” . Nowadays Mauritius has diversified their touristry merchandise and services in order to achieve the 2 million tourers by 2015. Mauritius is offering adventure touristry that is soft touristry and difficult touristry. Furthermore the authorities is practising responsible touristry and sustainable touristry. The authorities is besides leting touristry development on our islets such as Ile aux Cerfs.
2.4.2 Topography of Ile aux Cerf
Our selected country to transport out the EIA is Ile aux Cerfs. It is a touristry development site and each twenty-four hours there are different sea activities that take topographic point on the islet. Ile aux Cerf welcomes the Mauritanian people every bit good as the tourers. With the debut of sustainable development and Maurice Ile Durable, it is of import to cognize what the impacts of these developments on Ile aux Cerf. The EIA will assist to accomplish our purpose.
Ile aux Cerf, situated in the east seashore of Mauritius, is a arresting and of course glorious islet. This little Eden constitutes about 100 hectares of dirt. It is besides known as the cervid island and is recognized as holding the best beach of the Indian Ocean. Ile aux Cerfs is non a residential country. Everyday tourers every bit good as locals visit the island. To make the island, boats are available from Trou D’eau Douce, a little small town found in the E. It takes about 10 proceedingss to make the island. Tourism developments have taken topographic point in the island doing it a must see topographic point to see. In the past old ages, the island has become among the most good known tourer attractive forces.
2.4.3 Tourism Development on Ile aux Cerfs
Ile aux Cerfs is an islet found in the E of Mauritius. Many people describe Ile aux Cerfs as a mini Eden where you can loosen up and pass nice clip with household and friends. One of the chief touristry developments in Ile aux Cerfs is the golf class and the Sun group made this program public in July 1998. The undertaking consists of an eighteen-hole class and clubhouse. From the environment impact assessment study made antecedently on the islet it appears that the golf class covers an country of 40 hectares.
Furthermore the Touessrok hotel is another touristry development that relies to a great extent on the Ile aux Cerfs. It is situated near the islet. The direction of the Touessrok hotel is the one which managed the golf class on the islet. Touessrok hotel is a five stars plus well-known hotel throughout the universe. More other another touristry development on Ile aux Cerf is the Paul & A ; Virginie Restaurant, which is once more managed by the direction of the Touessrok hotel. Located on the islet, the eating house ‘s restful beachside scene, is perfect for a household tiffin of fish, pizza and Mauritanian dishes ( http// : www.elegantresorts.co.uk ) . There are besides a batch of touristry activities that take topographic point on the islet. These activities are chiefly sea activities that are provided by circuit operators such as Happy Holidays Mauritius. Examples of these activities are speed zone, Rampage, Big Banana, Frequent circular, Duo Patriot and paragliding ( http// : www.happy.holidays.mu ) .
Therefore these are some touristry development that occur in Mauritius and particularly on the islet of “ ile aux cerfs ” .
As we have seen before development can hold negative impacts on the environment and hence an EIA is required before the project of any development be it tourism or non-tourism development in order to place possible environmental impacts and happen out schemes to minimise the negative impacts. However the EIA should be well-done and ways should be found to get the better of the failings of the EIA so that the study is an effectual one and can assist in minimising environmental impacts.