HIV ( or Human Immunodeficiency Virus ) is the virus that causes AIDS ( or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome ) . The virus is passed from one individual to another through blood-to-blood and sexual contact. HIV destroys the immune system, which fights infection. Finally, the immune system is so diminished that diseases and infections begin to assail the organic structure. As these conditions worsen, a individual is diagnosed with AIDS.According to World Health Organzation ( WHO ) ,33 million people are infected with HIV/AIDS worldwide. About 12 million are immature people from 15 to 24 old ages of age. And immature adult females are three times more vulnerable to HIV than their males equals. HIV can be transmitted from individual to individual through infected blood, seeds or vaginal secernments, which have the highest concentrations of the virus and perinatally from female parent to child ( Piot & A ; Colebunders ) . Breast milk has besides been identified as a possible beginning of infection. The class of HIVinfection can change well among persons. The average interval from infection to the development of AIDS is 10-11 old ages. The spectrum of HIV infection ranges from an symptomless province to severe immunodeficiency with associated timeserving infections, tumors, and other conditions. Initial infection can be followed by an acute flu-like unwellness with febrility, lymphadenopathy, workout suits, myodynia, arthralgia, roseola, unease, sore pharynx, and concern. The hazard of disease patterned advance increases with the continuance of infection. Besides less than 5 % of HIV-infected grownups develop AIDS within 2 old ages of infection ; without therapy, about 20-25 % develop AIDS within 6 old ages after infection, and 50 % within 10 old ages ( CDC ) .

HIV/AIDS is non simply a wellness job, but besides a development problem.By distributing fast largely among immature people and working-age grownups, HIV/AIDS affects the economic system, society, household and instruction in a state, weakening the state as a whole.This brings us to the U.N. Millenium Developmental Goal 6 which is to battle HIV/AIDS among others ( Malaria, other diseases ) . In order to show a strategic intercession utilizing wellness theory theoretical account, two articles were chosen. First article focuses on forms hazard in healthy immature grownups. The chief aim of the article was to show that behavioural intercession plans to cut down adolescent sexual hazard behaviours. The survey has shown statistically important decreases in the short-run ; nevertheless, longer-term followup has demonstrated that effects diminish. However, the trust on individual-level theoretical accounts has been criticized. Four forms of rubber usage and associated degrees of hazards and beliefs were identified. These forms suggest value in aiming intercession schemes to persons at different degrees of hazard.

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Decision-making research workers have studied the conditions under which persons make faulty picks. Most of this work is based on classical determination theory, which focuses on how and why determinations deviate. Questions have been raised sing effectual ways to place persons at hazard for undertaking and conveying HIV, and supplying them with risk-reduction schemes. Peoples do non ever do what is best for them, even when they have all of the necessary information to do the best determination. Perceived hazard of undertaking HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases ( STDs ) has non been a systematically utile forecaster of existent sexual behaviour. Young grownups can accurately construe bad chances, but have trouble with low-risk and negligible-risk chances. In add-on, persons ‘ HIV hazard perceptual experience is likely to be influenced by assorted heuristics and prejudices, such as relationship heuristics, and the self-positivity prejudice, which reflects a inclination to be excessively optimistic about one ‘s hazard. There is besides grounds for a mutual relationship between hazardous behaviour and wellness beliefs.Failure to follow wellness behaviours to forestall negative results may be related to differences in how youths perceive hazard that is non instantly and personally relevant. Even after STD diagnosing, a sample of stripling females reported no alteration in their figure of unprotected sexual intercourse Acts of the Apostless, attitudes toward rubber usage, or perceived susceptibleness to STDs. Those who may hold changed their behaviour instantly after diagnosing had returned to the same degree of hazard behaviour by the follow-up appraisal.

The research workers were able to look into sexual determination devising and behaviour among 60 ( 30 females, 30 males ) heterosexual urban college pupils ( 18-24years ) , populating in high HIV prevalence vicinities in Brooklyn, New York ( Patel et al. ) . Fifty per centum of participants identified as African-American ( n=30 ) , 37 % as White ( n=22 ) , 5 % as Asiatic ( n=3 ) and 8 % as Other ( n=5 ) . Sing ethnicity, 10 % of participants identified themselves as Hispanic ( n=6 ) . The bulk of participants ( 68 % ) reported a monthly income of less than $ 1,000. However, many lived with their parents and came from working-class and lower middle-class households.

Harmonizing to Patel, Yoskowitz, Kaufman and Shortliffe from the HIV Center of Clinical and Behavioral Studies in NY, research on immature grownups ‘ sexual decision-making suggests that custom-tailored schemes are needed to aim persons at different hazard degrees. Rapid testing steps should be developed for sorting persons harmonizing to their hazard profile ( e.g. inconsistent rubber usage ) , which can so steer the choice of an intercession scheme. Specific schemes include ( 1 ) giving immature people tools for measuring their perceptual experiences of the benefits and hazards of their alone experiences that provide the context for hazardous sexual behaviour ; ( 2 ) turn toing the possible for disagreements between perceived hazard and existent hazard, including ways to place and weigh pertinent grounds and ways to counter unsupported beliefs ; and ( 3 ) Using personalized synergistic scenarios ( congruent with their ain beliefs and experiences ) . In line with these suggestions, they have created a brief set of guidelines for primary attention doctors to utilize when testing stripling and immature grownup patients for their degree of hazard.

In order to analyse which methodological method did the writers used for informations aggregation, one might come across the strength and failing as to how informations were collected. The research workers ‘ model focal points on the concluding procedure of how hazards are perceived, understood and used to pull illations based on a set of fortunes, taking to behavior. Such logical thinking procedures are closely associated but non absolutely correlated with determinations. Probes have found that they use timeserving schemes ( altering of principle based on the state of affairs ) with a focal point on their anterior cognition and beliefs, which are mostly brooding of the socio-cultural context. Strength of this survey was to categorise participants into bad vs. low-risk, or condom-users vs. non-condom users. Findingss led to look for forms of rubber usage and associated logical thinking schemes

The aim behind choosing two articles with a different dimension and aims were: for one to place persons at high hazard in order come up with a hazard decrease scheme or intercession. Hence, constructing upon this article, I chose an article by Diclemente et Al. This article chiefly focused on use of the societal ecological theoretical account in order to forestall HIV in striplings. The article accent was on comprehension of single and societal influences on behaviours that lead to HIV bar in immature people. The article by DiClemente et al.utilized a community grassroots motion designed to destigmatize AIDS and demand alteration and support from jurisprudence shapers. In other words, alteration came from the underside up. This intercession mobilized Brazilians and they were able to accomplish important societal alterations through protagonism, the organisation of political parties, trade brotherhoods, and nongovernmental organisations in coaction with the authorities. Condom gross revenues and distribution rose dramatically in the general population and particularly among immature people. Cultural values related to sexual behaviours began to gnaw and values back uping unfastened and honest treatment emerged particularly sing the stigma environing HIV and AIDS. Subsequently, sexual hazard decrease instruction plans became more acceptable and were implemented across diverse locales and among diverse populations such as with sex workers and immature people. In add-on, HIV proving became more socially acceptable and intervention for AIDS was viewed as a basic human right. More of import were the effects observed in the incidence rates for HIV-they were much lower than projected and mortality rates decreased by 50 % ( Berkman et al,2005 ) .

The article by DiClemente et Al. consequence showed that Brazil is one of the few states that experienced a diminution in incidence HIV infection and in mortality as a consequence of societal alteration attempts at the Macrosystem degree. This attempt may non be easy replicated in other communities or states ; nevertheless, we can larn from the Brazilian experience by concentrating on certain facets that could be replicated elsewhere such as the media run messages, the execution of sexual hazard decrease plans for many subgroups, and the publicity of HIV proving and intervention.

However, more research that incorporates designs to prove individual degree intercessions against multilevel intercessions is warranted. Furthermore, future research should besides look into developmental differences among the assorted phases that constitute adolescence. In order to turn to this societal wellness job, the Social Ecological Model will be used. The aims of the intercession are:

  1. To increase to the consciousness among the striplings to be cognizant of the hazard factors that lead to HIV.
  2. To authorise immature people in the battle against HV.

In position of sensed stigmatisation of HIV and AIDS by communities and broader society ( portion of macro system ) , immature people in this instance anticipate to be rejected by their household and friends ( micro-system ) .They are diffident whether they would acquire appropriate intervention in the wellness attention system and in their work context. This illustrates how procedures in one sub-system affect all other sub-systems.

Making a context for striplings to interact with one another in similar state of affairss ( supportive micro-system ) supplying them an chance to portion their experiences, construct their ego regard and reconsider facets of their lives. The end of this intercession is to assist striplings come into footings with and accept their diagnosing and to advance their psychological well being. Therefore, the intercession embodies a mental wellness focal point.


The initial focal point will be on the person in his/her context. Once they feel comfy among teens, most had the bravery to unwrap their position to household and friends. They could besides portion experiences with people in other micro-systems and, in the procedure, make supportive meso-systems for themselves.

As a consequence of the nature of their interpersonal interaction, a cohesive group will be developed where teens could portion their feelings and experiences.In this manner, the experiences of each adolescent influence all the others and they could larn from one another. For illustration, if a immature miss discloses her position to her female parent and receives a supportive reaction, it will promote more teens to unwrap their position ( mutuality ) .Teens would go resources for each other, because could larn from each other ‘s experiences. The end of the intercession is to help immature people to develop new header manners through a procedure that allows them to accommodate to their diagnosings and to develop a new life manner. The content dealt with in support group Sessionss would be based on the demands identified by HIV positive teens. Group activities would promote engagement and sharing.

The function of facilitators would ab initio be that knowing individuals ( experts ) who could help in developing a supportive clime in the group and supply the participants with resources, such as possible get bying schemes. However, facilitators would be portion of the procedure in direct interaction with the participants, following a learning attitude and esteeming the bounds of their expertness. They would utilize striplings ‘ experiences, cognition and wisdom to ease treatments and promote support. The relationship between the facilitator and the participants would promote the latter to take duty for their ain healing and to assist one another.

The usage of group procedures would authorise septic participants to entree more information that was shared by their equals. Group coherence would supply a unafraid sense of corporate mental wellness. The intercession, which would turn to the psychological demands of persons, would besides hold expanded effects in the wider community.

Furthermore, the proposed intercession will heighten our ability to carry on HIV bar communicating runs: Communication runs should border HIV as a community job, a job that community engagement can decide. In peculiar, runs should do HIV bar a subject of community discourse, because community argument can trip and back up engagement. Furthermore, runs should assist community members improve norms for vote, volunteering, functioning on consultative group, donating and forming community activities. Such engagement can in turn lead to alter in HIV plans and services every bit good as sense of corporate community efficaciousness to react to societal alterations.


Berkman, A. , Garcia, J. , Munoz-Laboy, M. , Paiva, V. , Parker, R. ( 2005 ) A critical analysis of the Brazilian response to HIV/AIDS: Lessons learned for commanding and extenuating the epidemic in developing states. American Journal of Public Health, 95 ( 7 ) , pp 1162-1172

Patel, V. , L, Yoskowitz, N. , A. , Kaufman, D. , R. , Shortliffe E.H. ( 2008 ) . Spoting forms of human immunodeficiency virus hazard in healthy immature grownups. Am J Med 121 ( 4 ) : pp 758-764

DiClemente, R. , J. , Crosby R. , A. , Salazar L. , F. ( 2007 ) . A Review of STD/HIV Preventive Interventions for Adolescents: Prolonging Effectss Using an Ecological Approach Journal of Pediatric Psychology 116 ( 1 ) : pp78-81.

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