Instruction manual: Read the notes for the drama ‘the king of beasts and the gem. Answer the inquiries which follow.
The term literally means when person draws attending to themselves or creates a show. It is an event that is memorable for the visual aspect that it creates.

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Example # 1
One of our first illustrations of spectacle is when Sadiku dances around a tree with the Bale’s image in manus. page 33. in jubilation of the fact that she has scotched the Bale Baraoka. She made such a ‘spectacle’ of herself that her physical jokes drew Sidi’s attending. This spectacle high spots Sadiku’s arrant joy at thwarting the Bale. She has triumphed in a society that requires adult females to conform to peculiar gender functions.

Example # 2
Sidi besides creates a ‘spectacle of herself on page 44. when Baroka throws the immature grappler. She reacts to his triumph with dance and vocalizing as with Sadiku and Baroka himself is surprised at the spectacle that she makes. This serves to foreground Sidi’s failing to the audience. She wants a strong adult male. Regardless of his age. This spectacle signals the point at which Baroka additions a serious bridgehead in his seduction of Sidi.

Example # 3
Sidi creates a spectacle at the terminal of the drama when she enters the market attractively dressed “She is beaming. jeweled. lightly clothed. and wears. light leather- thong sandals. ( pages 62-63 ) The spectacle is seen in the reaction from the villagers ‘They all go soundless except for the long- drawn O-Ohs of esteem pages 63 ) They were awed by Sidi’s beauty and literally halt to appreciate it. The spectacle continues when Sidi sings a call and response vocal. with the assistance of instrumentalists. in jubilation of her at hand matrimony

Phase Directions
These are instructions that are written into the book of a drama that indicate phase actions. the motion of performing artists props and the usage of props every bit good as production demands. Phase waies add life to the paly. For illustration. the phase way that occurs during Baroka’s seduction of Sidi is really effectual in leting the reader to visualise the action. We see Baroka intentionally being coy with the undermentioned phase way ‘as if seeking to understand’ ( page 40 ) . Then we see Sidi wittingly playing along with Baroka ‘The mischievousness returns to her face ‘ ( page 41 ) . There is besides an aside on page 43 where Sidi implies that Baroka’s age makes him unattractive to her If Baroka were my male parent ( aside ) – which may take him to be – ( page 43 ) This aside brings out Sidi’s vernal naivete . She is merely looking at the physical. as the immature normally do. She is non seeking to see beyond Bale Baroka’s physical signifier.

The Integrities
The integrities dictate that ‘a good drama should consist one action. should take topographic point in one twenty-four hours. and should go on in one topographic point. ’ Time The drama for winning Sid’ takes topographic point over the class of one twenty-four hours. It is split between forenoon. midday and dark. We meet all the cardinal participants in the forenoon and the phase is set for the gem. Sidi. We see Lakunle already competing for her attending. and Baroka‘s program has been set in gesture. Through the debut of Sadiku. Night sees Sidi in Baroka’s clasps.

So the component of clip is used in a really structured manner because each portion of the twenty-four hours is used to develop the secret plan. Put The narrative occurs merely in the small town of Illujinle. Mentions are made to Lagos. but the chief action does non go forth the small town. Action There is merely one chief secret plan. and sub-plots. The secret plan is based around the seduction of Sidi by both Lakunle and Bale Baroka. True. Lakunle’s seduction is quiet awkward and riddled with incompatibilities in tone. linguistic communication and content. but it is a seduction none the less. Baroka’s seduction. nevertheless. is tempered by age and experience. The first half of the drama belongs to Lakunle’s seduction scenes. while the 2nd half is reserve for Bale Baroka.

This is a brief. memorable stating that expresses a truth or belief. Proverbs are used. in this context as euphemisms. every bit good as to stress points that the characters are doing A prophesier has honour except in his ain place ( page 51 )

This adage was uttered by Lakunle. when he was referred to as mad by Sidi. This adage literally translates to: a great adult male is normally non appreciated in his ain place. Lakunle confirms this when he states ‘Wise work forces have been called mad Before me and after. many more shall be So abused’ ( page 5 ) . In this instance. Lakunle is stressing his unconcern for how the people view him. If the snail finds matchwoods in his shell he changes house. ( page 6 ) This proverb’s context was based on Lakunle’s ailments about the retardation of Illunjinle. Sidi is the individual that utters this adage and it means that if Lakunle dislikes life in Illujinle. so he should relocate. This represents Sidi’s niceness. or insurgent daring. because she is make bolding to diss Lakunle. The adult female gets lost in the forests one twenty-four hours and every wood divinity dies the following. ( page 42 ) Bale Baroka utters this adage when Sidi interrupt s his day-to-day exercising. He tells her that he will let her to watch.

This context implies that the adage means that. literally. ‘if you slip. you will skid. ’ It besides carries a dual reading because it could besides intend that when a adult female gets lost. or compromised sexually. it means catastrophe. This proverb acts as an debut to Sidi’s seduction. If the tortoise can non topple it does non intend that he can stand ( page 42 ) This adage is uttered by Sidi when she tries to tease Baroka. She utters this adage after she declares that the immature grappler will win Baroka. It means that merely because person does non look to do errors. it does non intend that the individual is perfect. or incapable of doing errors.

This adage emphasizes Sidi’s daring. every bit good as her humor. When the kid is full of conundrums. the female parent has one water-ot lupus erythematosus ( 42 ) This conundrum is Baroka’s revenge to Sidi’s veiled abuse. It means that when a kid starts acting like an grownup. it is clip to go forth her mother’s place. He is stating Sidi that she is playing with fire. Until the finger nails have scraped the dust. no-one can state which insect released his bowels ( 43 ) The context of this raillery is when the Bale Tells Sidi that he changes his married womans when he tires them. and Sidi asks him if it is another altering clip for the Bale. He responds with this adage which means that he must literally look into. before he chooses the following married woman. The deduction is that he needs to ‘try Sidi out’ before she becomes a rival for the place of his new married woman.

Does the shrub cow run to hole when he hears his beaters’ Hei-ei-wo-rah ( 46 ) . Baroka responds in this mode when he believes that a calumniatory statement has been made against him. It implies that Baroka is stating that he is non a coward. That he will support himself. This adage literally begs the inquiry: will you be a coward Old vino thrives best within a new bottle ( 54 )

This adage was uttered at the tallness of Bale Baroka’s seduction of the gem Sidi. It literally translates to intend that the old are at their best when they are learning the immature. He is stating Sidi that his age and experience will be an plus to her in all facets of her life.

The monkey sweats ; it is merely the hair upon his dorsum which still deceives the universe ( 54 ) The context of this treatment is when Baroka tells Sidi that his life is non pleasure loving as many people think it is. Therefore this adage means that of import people have force per unit areas excessively: it is merely that 1 has to be near to them to see this. because the force per unit area is non reflected externally

Answer the undermentioned inquiries

1. There are many public presentations in The Lion and the Jewel.
( a ) Sum up the dance of the lost traveller. every bit good as one other public presentation of your pick. ( B ) Discuss the dramatic significance of the both public presentations in the drama. 2. The thought of the spectacle is an of import 1 in the Lion and the Jewel ( a ) Examine a spectacle that both Sidi and Sadiku create

( B ) Discuss the subject that is highlighted by Sadiku’s spectacle 3. Explain the construct of the Integrities and discourse the ways in which the drama conforms to this convention. Discourse the manner in which one of the elements in the Integrities contributes to the development of the secret plan. 4. Proverbs are brief. yet memorable expressions that express a truth or belief. ( a ) Using the undermentioned adage: ‘If the snail finds matchwoods in his shell he changes his house’ ( 6 ) discourse the fortunes that surround this adage. every bit good as the individual that says it. ( B ) Discuss the character trait that it highlights about the talker. 5. Choose any two Proverbss in the text. Discourse the fortunes that surround the uttering of these two Proverbss every bit good as their dramatic significance in the drama.

Instruction manual: Read the notes on the two verse forms and reply the inquiries which follow



I believe that we all dream when we are asleep. Most of these dreams have really small footing in world. But there is another sort of dream which is based on our experiences. This is a yearning. a hope or a wish for something that is missing. You may woolgather of the twenty-four hours when CXC is finished so that you may hold long periods of uninterrupted slumber. For those whose parents are working overseas you may woolgather of the vacations when your parents will see or be home for good. What are some of the things that you dream of making / being / holding?

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was a leader of the Civil Rights motion in the U. S. A. during the 1950’s and 1960’s. He lived in an environment that was similar to that of the male child in this verse form. He had a dream that was memorialized in a celebrated address. Among the things he dreamt was that his small kids “will one twenty-four hours populate in a state where they will non be judged by the coloring material of their tegument but by the content of their character. ” In seeking to carry through this dream Dr. King was assassinated in 1968 at the age of 39.

The full text of I have a dream

-I Have a Dream

Martin Luther King Jr. August 28. 1963
I say to you today. my friends. even though we face the troubles of today and tomorrow. I still have a dream. It is a dream profoundly rooted in the American Dream.

I have a dream that one twenty-four hours this state will lift up and populate out the true significance of its credo: “We keep these truths to be axiomatic ; that all work forces are created equal” .

I have a dream that one twenty-four hours even the province of Mississippi. a province sweltering with the heat of unfairness. sweltering with the heat of subjugation. will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justness.

I have a dream that my four small kids will one twenty-four hours populate in a state where they will non be judged by the coloring material of their tegument but by the content of their character. I have a dream today.

I have a dream that one twenty-four hours down in Alabama with its barbarous racialists. with its governor holding his lips dripping with the words of interjection and nullification one twenty-four hours right at that place in Alabama small black male childs and black misss will be able to fall in custodies with small white male childs and small white misss as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today.

I have a dream that one twenty-four hours every vale shall be exalted. every hill and mountain shall be made low. the unsmooth topographic points will be made fields. and the crooked topographic points will be made consecutive. and the glorification of the Lord shall be revealed. and all the flesh shall see it together. This is our hope. This is the religion that I go back to the South with. With this religion we will be able to hew out of the mountain of desperation a rock of hope. With this religion we will be able to transform the jangling strifes of our state into a beautiful symphonic music of brotherhood.

With this religion we will be able to work together. to pray together. to fight together. to travel to imprison together. to stand up for freedom together. cognizing that we will be free one twenty-four hours. This will be the twenty-four hours when all of God’s kids will be able to sing with new significance. “My state ’tis of thee. sweet land of autonomy. of thee I sing. Land where my male parent died. land of pilgrims’ pride. from every versant. Lashkar-e-Taiba freedom ring” . And if America is to be a great state this must go true. So let freedom pealing from the colossal brows of New Hampshire. Let freedom pealing from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom pealing from the rising Allegheny mountainss of Pennsylvania!

Let freedom pealing from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado! Let freedom pealing from the bosomy inclines of California! But non merely that ; allow freedom pealing from the Stone Mountain of Georgia! Let freedom pealing from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee. Let freedom pealing from every hill and mole hill of Mississippi. From every versant. Lashkar-e-Taiba freedom ring. and when this happens.

When we let freedom ring. when we let it pealing from every small town and every crossroads. from every province and every metropolis. we will be able to rush up that twenty-four hours when all of God’s kids. black work forces and white work forces. Hebrews and Gentiles. Protestants and Catholics. will be able to fall in custodies and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual. “Free at last! Free at last! Thank God almighty. we are free at last” !

The hideous slaying of the 14 twelvemonth old male child. Emmett Till in 1955. puts the frights and concerns of the character into context. Standing as one of the most-heinous. race-motivated offenses in America’s history. the snatch and barbarian lynching of 14-year-old Emmett Till ( pictured ) in Mississippi still stirs coals of choler in the heads of many who have endured racism and unfairness. Considered a transformative minute in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. Till’s decease shocked a state and still resonates profoundly in the heads of Mississippians and others abroad. The fortunes environing Emmett’s decease remain murky. His slaying was purportedly sparked by Emmett doing inappropriate progresss toward a 21-year-old White adult female. while sing his mother’s place province in the Mississippi Delta part. Till and Curtis Jones went to purchase sweet dainties from a local market. Bryant’s Grocery and Meat Market.

Subsequently. testimony from Jones stated that Till. a Chicago occupant. bragged to him and other teens about his incorporate school and a supposed White girlfriend. The minute purportedly prompted the male childs to make bold Emmett to talk to Carolyn Bryant. married woman of shop proprietor 24-year-old Roy Bryant. Several histories have been reported of what Emmett Till really said to the adult female. Some studies say that Till wolf-whistled at Bryant. while others said he used implicative linguistic communication in a agency to lure her. Carolyn Bryant subsequently said that Till grabbed her around the waist and asked for a day of the month and said that he used “unprintable” words every bit good. Either manner. word got back to Rob Bryant and he employed a Black friend to prehend a immature male child walking down the street — merely to hold his married woman say that they had the incorrect individual. After detecting how to happen their mark. Roy Bryant. stepbrother John Milam. and another adult male ( who was rumored to be Afro-american ) drove to Rev. Moses Wright’s place. where Till was remaining in the wee hours of the forenoon.

Endangering force to the other occupants. they took Till and threw him in the dorsum of a pick-up truck so drove off. They reportedly drove to a barn nearby and pistol whipped the male child while they continued to crush him as the work forces debated on what to make with him following. Rev. Wright went looking for him — but fearful of his life — neglected to name the constabulary. Curtis Jones got word back to the constabulary. and Emmett’s female parent. Mamie ( pictured ) . was alerted that her boy went losing. Bryant and Milam were questioned by local constabularies and charged with snatch. The intelligence reached Mississippi NAACP province field secretary Medgar Evers and Bolivar County lead rep Amzie Moore. who both disguised themselves and entered the cotton Fieldss of the part in order to happen hints about Till’s abduction. Three yearss subsequently. Till’s organic structure was found swollen with H2O and severely damaged in the Tallahatchie River. He had been shot. with grounds of a terrible whipping on his tegument.

A local Mississippi newspaper speculated that the organic structure found was non Till because it couldn’t be identified. even though Rev. Wright identified the organic structure and retrieved a ring that Emmett wore. Amazingly plenty. then-Mississippi Governor Hugh L. White was angered by the slaying and sent notice to the NAACP that a full probe was to take topographic point. For Emmett’s female parent. the painful procedure of burying her kid besides became a countrywide event as she demanded her son’s organic structure be returned to Chicago with an unfastened coffin funeral ( pictured supra ) to tag the ferociousness of the slaying. Photos of the funeral appeared in the Chicago Defender and Jet magazine. inspiring protests and strong reactions from citizens both Black and White who found the offense to be utmost.

Although all grounds pointed to Bryant and Milam killing Emmett. a expansive jury in November of that twelvemonth neglected to indict the brace in the snatch of the male child. although they all but admitted their error in an interview under the protection of dual hazard. Till’s slaying helped push along the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1957. which allowed the U. S. Department of Justice to look into in local affairs. While Bryant and Milam felt justified in their actions. they both died of malignant neoplastic disease in their 60s.

Keeping steadfast to their racialist pride. the brace would be haunted by the decease of Emmett Till in every case and ne’er found peace once more. The snatch and slaying of Emmett Till remains as one of Black America’s most-sorrowful minutes but besides a startling one every bit good. Even as many relive the incident each clip they’re exposed to it. there is some comfort that Emmett Till’s female parent fought to the terminal to contend such unfairness across the state and that the bequest of extinguishing hatred offense still lives on to this twenty-four hours TITLE

The rubric is appropriate as it prepares us for the aspirations of a male child who is black. The fact that his coloring material is mentioned in the rubric suggests that the verse form is about a male child who suffers favoritism because of his race.


The verse form might be seen as a wish list which draws attending to the countries in which this male child sees the demand for alteration. The word want is used 12 times. ( Repetition )

Stanza one places our immature dreamer in his schoolroom. He longs for the attending of his white instructor who is in the wont of disregarding him ( his eyes go past him ) even when he does something outstanding. like hiting a end. He knows that he likely contributes to his ain deficiency of visibleness in that even when he knows the reply. he clams up. He feels that since he is in the procedure of acquiring an instruction he should non act like his woodchopper ascendants who were non educated. He uses this simile to demo that he needs to be more confident. self-asserting and self assured.

Stanza two recognizes how of import instruction is as a agency of bettering your position in society. and so the male child wants to be educated “to the best of melody up” . Please pay attending to this metaphor. When instrumentalists tune up their instruments. they are guaranting that they play at the right pitch. This male child is ambitious ; he wants to be educated to the highest degree possible. He knows that if you are educated. you should non experience that you have to “lick boots” ( metaphor ) ; that is to make something low. incorrect. scandalous or take downing to affect person in authorization because you want a occupation or a publicity.

He wants to be free to go all over the universe without being humiliated by being told that there are certain topographic points that he can non come in because of his coloring material. “…no …hotel keepers would do it a waste. ” The word waste implies that he would be wasting clip. attempt and money if he can non bask a trip that he pays for.

In stanza three. he wishes that “life wouldn’t spend [ him ] out opposing” . ( Metaphor ) We have two picks when confronted with unfairness. either to accept the unjust intervention softly. or to oppose it. Clearly he will non accept and so he is trusting for a life in the hereafter where there is justness and equality for all so that he will hold no demand to oppose. A individual who is spent is a individual who is tired. He wants to make productive things with his life ; he does non desire to pass his life contending for rights that should be his without any attempt on his portion.

As a human being he is made with the ability to literally stand unsloped. but he wants to make more than the mean human being. he will non be satisfied with averageness. he wants to stand out. Note the metaphorical usage of “stretch” . He admires Paul Robeson as an illustration of an African American who stretched metaphorically. Robeson excelled in several countries of his life. He was an outstanding bookman. histrion. vocalist and militant for peace. racial justness and improved labour dealingss – therefore the allusion to Robeson. “My inside oculus a sun” ( metaphor ) speaks of his desire for glare. perceptual experience and apprehension. If he does non hold these qualities. he fears he will non be able to act upon anyone into altering the position quo ( the manner things are ) . “Nobody wants to state hullo to awful replies. ”

Stanza four begins with another of import allusion. “Torch throwsters of night” and the want that “plotters in pajama would pray for themselves” ( initial rhyme ) are a clear mention to the villainous ( evil ) activities of members of the Ku Klux Klan. some of whom really claimed that in terrorising black people and those who sympathized with them. by incendiarism. anguish and slaying. they were transporting out God’s will.

The male child wishes that Klan members would “burn visible radiations for nice times” ( metaphor ) . Alternatively of perpetrating Acts of the Apostless of panic. he would wish them to utilize their energies to allow their light radiance by advancing Acts of the Apostless of decency that would do the universe a better topographic point. ( Note that visible radiation is a symbol for Jesus and for Christian values. ) He besides wants them to pray for themselves. The stanza terminals with his yearning to be genuinely incorporate into the society as people treat him like an foreigner. “as if I dropped from Mars” . ( Simile )

Possibly stanza five evokes our understanding more than any of the other stanzas. Here we see a kid who is vulnerable because parents who should be protecting their kids can non carry through this of import function. Although they put up a facade ( a pretence ) of assurance ( bluster ) in forepart of their kids. they excessively are scared. The male child knows it and so he makes the tormented plaint: “I could endure. / I could endure a large large batch. / I wish cipher would desire to gain / the awful load I can endure. ” ( repeat ) His concluding want expressed in the last two lines of the verse form shows that the male child has a societal scruples. He is non merely concerned about himself. but he cares about all people.


The verse form explores subjects of Race. Freedom. Justice. Equality. Childhood. Dreams and aspirations and Religion.


The tone is brooding as the male child repeatedly expresses a yearning for the things that will do his society a better topographic point and do him safe and happy. He ne’er demonstrates choler or bitterness although little irony may be detected in: “Wish schemers in pajama would pray for themselves. ” ( lines 24 -25 ) There is besides the component of fright and desperation in his tone in the last stanza.


A temper of anxiousness permeates the verse form.


The poet’s linguistic communication and manner reflect convincingly the manner a child’s idea might flux. This is done through the usage of repeat. This is non merely seen in the frequence with which he uses the words “I wish” . Please besides note the repeat of and in lines 9 and 10 ) . Note besides the deliberate infantile simpleness in the look “nasty answers” .


The poetic devices include Repetition. Metaphor. Simile. Alliteration and Allusion. These have been pointed out to you in the CONTENT subdivision of this lesson. Please analyze them and state how they add to your grasp of the verse form.

It is the Changeless Image of your Face


The character reflects on the image of some-one he cares for. This love involvement accused him. with their eyes. of interrupting their bosom. The character admits that both of them ( he and the love involvement ) can do no alibis for his behavior because the love involvement does non take precedency over his land. or state. Despite this fact. the character begs for clemency. pleading guilty for being seduced by his love interest’s beauty. This individual protects him in a heartfelt way and he admits that. as a consequence of this. he has committed lese majesty against his state. He hopes that his state. his other dearest love. will excuse him because he loves both his state and his love involvement.


1. Personification

Lines 4. 6-7: The love interest’s eyes invariably accuse and convict the character. This device highlights the extent to which the character has hurt this individual. Lines 18-20: The character hopes that his state. his other dearest love. will forgive him for the faithless act of loving another. This highlights the nationalism that defines the persona’s relationship to his state.

2. Oxymoron

The term heart’s-treachery implies that the bosom. something so critical and declarative of love. has committed a awful offense. It highlights the grief that the character has caused his love involvement.


( a ) ‘constant image’
This implies that the character invariably. or ever. retrieve his love interest’s face. It emphasizes the guilt he feels in relation to this individual.

( B ) ’grave attention’
The love interest’s eyes display sedate attending. The word grave implies intensely serious. so this individual is genuinely hurt.

( degree Celsius ) ‘World of knives’
A knife inflicts hurting and destroys. The character. therefore. is placing his universe with doing hurting.

( vitamin D ) ‘such blackmail with your beauty’
To blackjack person is to hold something over them that puts their will in your control. The love interest’s beauty has captivated the character in such a manner that he betrays his state with this individual.

The temper of the verse form is brooding. The character is believing about his two loves and how he is torn between them.

The tone of the verse form is sadness and guilt. The character is guilt ridden over this love trigon and unhappiness permeates the words that he uses to depict it.

Love. guilt. nationalism. topographic points and desires/ dreams

“The verse forms ‘it is the changeless Image of your Face’ and Dreaming Black Boy’ are cinfessions of hopes and desires” . ( a ) Outline the hopes and desires that are portrayed in EACH verse form. ( 8 Markss ) ( B ) Discuss the verse form which you find more appealing and utilize grounds from the text to back up your pick. ( 8 Markss ) ( degree Celsius ) For EACH verse form. discourse ONE device which is used to portray hopes OR desires. ( 9 Markss )

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