In the series written by C.S. Lewis, The Chronicles of Narnia, and the trilogy, His Dark Material, composed by Philip Pullman, there are legion sums of similarities between the different stuffs, nevertheless both showing instead big controversial positions on faith. Both writers have had a past filled with religion, whether it was down to their ain pick or they grew up with it, they have been to a great extent influenced by their church, and felt it should be expressed in their kids ‘s literature. Over some controversial subjects read in the two writers ‘ fiction many parents and schools have objected to their kids reading the extremely combative books. They believe that subjects such as the power of the church, the hereafter, homosexualism, and the place of adult females, enchantresss, and sexual freedom should be censored from kids. However, these two writers have done precisely the opposite and expressed these issues on a fictional degree making argument.

C.S. Lewis was raised and baptized in a church-going household in the Church of Ireland. At the immature age of 15, Lewis converted to godlessness, ironically claiming “ that his younger ego was really angry with God for non bing. ” Lewis converted once more to theism in 1929, and eventually Christianity in 1931. From so on Lewis was a strong Christian apologetics that defended the religion against any expostulations. Both Lewis and Pullman ‘s books contains spiritual fable that features speaking animate beings, parallel universes, and kids who face adult moral picks that determine the ultimate destiny of those universes. However, Pullman, one of England ‘s most out-spoken Atheists who belong to secular humanists societies is one of Lewis ‘s biggest critics. He believes that Lewis is a negative influence on kids reading his stuff, and has accused him of having spiritual propaganda, misogynism, racism, and emotional sadism in his books.

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More or less, both writers express their spiritual sentiments through kids ‘s literature making controversial statements on whether or non these ethical motives should be expressed to such immature ages, nevertheless, has it been censored at all over the past 60 old ages? Has C.S. Lewis opened doors for other writers to compose freely about their sentiments on faith through fictional characters directed to kids? Or, has Lewis made other writers such as Philip Pullman hold back on his sentiments for the interest of the kids? Through reading these two different series I will be able to analyse whether Christian values and ethical motives have been censored, altered, or even worsened over the 60 twelvemonth difference between the two series were written.

The Narratives:

First, C.S. Lewis ‘s series, The Chronicles of Narnia, starts with the novel The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe. Four characters are introduced within the first sentence of the book, Peter, Susan, Edmund, and Lucy. These are the kids who lead us into a charming universe called Narnia, merely from stepping through a closet. Lucy, the first of the four, is the 1 to detect Narnia and is so faced with the job of holding to convert the others of her findings, which does so take sometime. Lucy meets a faun named Tumnus, who proceeds to inquire Lucy whether or non she is the girl of Eve, which confuses Lucy. However, throughout the book this inquiry will go more of import towards the secret plan, as we find out that they have encountered a universe where they will be sent on a immense mission. Edmund is veered off into the incorrect way and sides with the wicked enchantress, while the other three kids go with a king of beasts named Aslan. This is the chief struggle in the book that these characters are faced with. The fact that Lewis uses fable to bring forth a extremely controversial piece where characters are symbols of spiritual figures in today ‘s society for illustration utilizing Aslan as an carnal signifier of God is a batch for childs to understand. However, is it excessively much for kids ‘s literature? Does Pullman make the same?

The Golden Compass starts about the same as The Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe, as the chief character, a small miss named Lyra and her devil named Pantalaimon, enters a cupboard. Lyra ‘s best friend so gets stolen by the Gobblers, which we subsequently find out is a group of people stealing kids to “ salvage their psyches. ” Lyra unwittingly meets her female parent, who is the Godhead of the Gobblers, and is sent to populate with her. After she finds out she is a member of the Gobblers, Lyra escapes and runs into The Gyptians, who are a mobile and irreligious separate society who are sort to Lyra. They are out seeking to deliver all of the stolen kids, nevertheless, when Lyra ‘s brush with Dr. Lanselius proves that there is something particular about Lyra. Lanselius says that Lyra must carry through an of import undertaking without cognizing what she ‘s making. This means that Lyra must stay guiltless until after she has accomplished what she is meant to make. Lanselius ‘s gift of the alethiometer is a powerful one. Lyra ‘s find of Tony Makarios helps her to understand that the Gobblers are cutting kids ‘s devils off from them in a process they call Intercision. This is the chief difference in the book, and Lyra is the lone individual who can repair it. Pullman creates many different intense subjects throughout the book, which I will look into, whether or non they have developed since C.S. Lewis first wrote his books.

Faith as a signifier of judgement

Both series are based around a big planetary subject, being faith. While C.S. Lewis ‘s thought of faith revolves around the four kids believing in Narnia ; Pullman ‘s subject of religion is more a manner of life, instead than an existent instruction lesson. Lewis starts The Lion, The Witch, and the Wardrobe with an apparent job immediately ; is Narnia a existent topographic point? Lucy, the youngest, was the first to believe in this new universe, where as on the contrary the other three kids needed to be persuaded after much clip and grounds. This closely compares to The Golden Compass, as Lyra knows there is a different sort of universe out at that place, she has no grounds at all, yet she merely has her religion. I believe the two writers are seeking to parallel the people in today ‘s society that are normally known as “ non-believers. ” This is even clearer when Edmund says, “ Oh, yes, Lucy and I have been playing- pretense that all her narrative about a state in the closet is true. Just for merriment, of class. There ‘s nil at that place truly. ” Lewis creates a analogue between Edmund and a non-believer, typically known as a individual who does non believe in Christianity and the being of God. This is easy to understand, as Edmund rejects the thought of a wholly different universe beyond a closet that he has even witnessed himself. Pullmans seems to be more conserved when it comes to speaking about God, as he normally uses “ the church ” more than God himself, as we know he is anti-Christian.

Furthermore, religion is used as a signifier of judgement for these kids in both books, to steer them through their lives. The kids rely on this to steer them through their escapades finding what is right and incorrect. Amongst this, emotions play a big function in steering the kids ‘s judgements. For illustration, the alethiometer plays a immense axial rotation in The Golden Compass. The alethiometer is basically a powerful tool to Lyra demands. The name itself says a batch, it emerges from Aleithia which means “ truth ” in Greek, and metre which means “ step. ” The alethiometer merely works with person who truly believes in it. Lyra learns how to utilize it, and discovers that it will state her what has happened, what is traveling on now, and on occasion, what will go on in the hereafter. Lyra sets herself up to read the alethiometer in a manner which can parallel a spiritual speculation, as she goes into some kind of enchantment. Her emotions run high at this point, as she can see herself linking to some power outside of herself. This is an of import facet in The Golden Compass as Pullman finally does n’t believe that worlds are the most powerful being in being, nevertheless, Lyra ‘s speculation proves humanity is capable to powerful nonhuman forces.

On the other manus, Lewis uses a different tool to demo faith, judgement, and emotion ; he uses Aslan. From the beginning of this book, the kids take directly off to Aslan ‘s loving nature and pure goodness. Unwittingly all the kids except Edmund feel a comfort in the presence of Aslan, due to his allegorical representation, Jesus Christ. Aslan emits goodness in people, which helps the kids trust him so much. They finally rely and depend on Aslan ‘s just nature as their counsel and religion in Narnia. However, as Aslan was giving up his life for Edmund, reenacting the decease and Resurrection of Jesus Christ, the kids had seemed to hold lost religion, and hope. I believe this is a life lesson Lewis is seeking to learn ; No affair what happens in life, you must non give up on the one thing that keeps your religion. Therefore, the kids ‘s religion was in Aslan, they did n’t give up on him, and he rose once more, demoing non to free religion.

Sin in the Eyes of God

Sin is a serious subject brought up in both books, nevertheless, one more prominent than the other. Pullman ne’er uses the term wickedness during the book ; nevertheless, he creates an allegorical word to make the occupation, being dust. Dust is used in order to supply a less direct position on this subject. Dust is the thought of world made up of atoms environing grownups. Pullman presents dust as a portion of development of childhood to adulthood. Dust is basically what all of the human grownups want to salvage these kids from. During the book this thought of dust becomes clearer and clearer. The manner in which these kids trade with it is a strong affair brought out through each single character. Dust merely exists in grownups as Dust is non attracted to innocence in the same manner that it is to see. This develops the thought of wickedness, as the artlessness of kids has non developed plenty to understand what sort of evil wickedness has. Thus, one time one has received dust, they have eventually lost their artlessness. Ultimately, Dust is the being of experience among an person, therefore, the more experience one has, largely grownups, the more dust the individual will inherit. The character Mrs. Coulter is created to execute the responsibility of being a Jesus. Inevitably, Lyra is faced with the hard occupation of denying dust, although, who other than Mrs. Coulter is at that place to steer Lyra in confronting this internal conflict. Pullman makes Mrs. Coulter appear as is if she is paralleling what the Christians use as a name for Jesus Christ, their savior. This is a really controversial subject in The Golden Compass, which can be difficult for kids to understand, I believe this is why Pullman touches so much on this country, as grownups are more likely to hold on this construct. This thought of wickedness is a batch more controversial than Lewis ‘s thought, demoing, how it has developed over clip.

On the contrary to Pullman ‘s thought of wickedness, C.S. Lewis attempts to prosecute this thought of wickedness more or less, nevertheless, in a less direct manner than Pullman. Lewis uses the weak character, Edmund, to portray this subject on a planetary degree in the book. The first brush of wickedness happens between Edmund and the enchantress. Finally, Edmund is seen as treasonist to his household, while he sides with the enchantress and his life is so confiscate to the White Witch. This is a parallel with merely as any evildoer ‘s life is forfeit to Satan after decease without the intercession of God. As the Beaver describes the Witch as “ the Emperors hangman, ” this could be seen as an acronym for a “ retainer of Satan. ” The Witch plays an of import function of being the literary place of Satan ; she has the right to kill any Narnian caught in an act of perfidy. Although it ne’er says, this parallels the function of Satan who has the capacity to enforce religious decease after the decease of the organic structure. Again, this is another subject that can be rather misanthropic and difficult for kids to hold on, therefore, I believe Lewis directed this thought towards the older audience.


C.S. Lewis and Philip Pullman both present the thought of freedom to their intended readers, nevertheless, both present it in two really different ways. First of all, Pullman has the thought that you receive freedom through your ain cognition. The church is determined to guarantee ignorance between kids in His Dark Material which initiates the thought of freedom through cognition. This idea dates back to the beginning of clip with Adam and Eve, and the out tree of cognition. When Adam and Eve defied God and took from the tree, they abandoned the stat of artlessness and became free grownups who suffered and toiled, but who at least idea for themselves. This autumn, nevertheless, marked the beginning of good in the universe ; it signaled the ruin of humanity which the church governments did n’t wish. They prefer people brooding in the province of guiltless ignorance everlastingly, than in a province of cognizing. Lord Asriel and his work forces stage their rebellion to guarantee that everyone has the right to achieve cognition and go freethinking grownups alternatively of monitored kids.

On the other manus, there is C.S. Lewis, who is seeking to exemplify freedom as a wages or compensation. A premier illustration of this is when Aslan sacrifices his life to salvage Edmund, merely as Christ gave his life to salvage world. Edmund does n’t cognize it but through Aslan ‘s decease, Edmund ‘s wickedness is wiped out, and Edmund is permitted to populate. This forfeit finally gave Edmund the freedom to populate. Lewis shows how it takes one individuals ‘ forfeit for another individual ‘s freedom, a construct difficult to hold on. This parallels how world is allowed to populate in heaving now that Christ ‘s decease has cleared Adam ‘s original wickedness when he disobeyed God in the Garden of Eden.These two thoughts of freedom are both valid and right, nevertheless, are presented in wholly different ways, demoing how the clip difference between the two series has somewhat altered perceptual experiences of subjects, yet, showing the subject with the same significance.

The instruction of ripening

The two series take advantage of immature readers, and both attempt to prophesy the procedure of ripening in two wholly different ways. First being a more realistic attack for younger kids by Lewis is the instruction of moral adulthood. The character Lucy is used to state a narrative of ripening of ethical motives, along with Edmund, who shows the negative sides of this. Edmund falls into a deep muss of gluttony, which necessarily causes problem for the remainder of the household. It is when the queen and Edmund have this conversation, “ It is dull, Son of Adam, to imbibe without feeding, ” said the Queen soon. “ What would you wish best to eat? ” “ Turkish Delight, please, your Majesty, ” said Edmund, that we see the first act of gluttony. Edmund, non merely takes a hot drink from the Queen, but continues and asks for cocoa ; here we can see his pure hoggishness. This is a awful trait Edmund has as it wholly blinds him of his perceptual experience of the White Witch, which us the audience can see directly off. This is the instruction of adulthood that I believe Lewis wants to acquire across to the readers. I believe Lewis wants overall to demo how sing others, and non acquiring sucked into the trap of gluttony is a measure needed to be taken to make a degree of adulthood. The fact that Edmund fought his ain conflict and redeemed himself with his ain custodies shows that he matured plenty to recognize he must turn out his worthiness and put on the line his ain life to nail the Witch ‘s wand, which is finally merely every bit of import as Aslan ‘s forfeit. This is a good manner to learn ripening without being excessively in your face about it. It is a great lesson for kids to larn at a immature age, where as on the contrary, Pullman takes a deeper manner of learning ripening that may be excessively hard for kids to hold on.

Philip Pullman uses the first human sexual brush, the Adam and Eve narrative, as a base of his sermon of ripening in The Golden Compass. Finally in the 3rd book of this series Lyra engages in a sexual relationship with Will, Lyra chooses to turn up and abandon the artlessness of her childhood. This has such a great significance in the 3rd book, nevertheless, it is set up early in the first book as for Lord Asriel, the narrative of Adam and Eve is the narrative of the beginning of human experience. Just as Adam and Eve Ate from the fruit tree and gained cognition, kids make the passage from artlessness to see in order to go to the full developed worlds. Again, dust is seen as consciousness, or consciousness of the universe around you and all of its possibilities. Children do non pull Dust because they are still guiltless and are thought to hold problem understand the universe. Therefore, Pullman uses this thought to develop the subject of turning up, and maturing, hence, grownups, because of the cognition they have gained through ripening, do pull dust. This was a difficult thought for me to understand, so I can conceive of that the younger coevals of readers reading this book, would non wholly understand the procedure of maturating in Pullmans instance.


C.S. Lewis has created a series of books filled with lessons for kids to larn from. These lessons vary from religion, award, love, to enticement, trueness and much more. Lewis being a pro-Christian author, he feels these are of import lessons to acquire across to kids in his books. I see no injury in learning kids good Christian moral lessons through kids ‘s literature, which Lewis does, every bit long as they are realistic lessons. It is questionable if some kids understand the allegorical mention of Aslan, nevertheless, even if they do n’t, lessons can still be taught through the books, which are easier to pick up on.

Philip Pullman, besides produced a trilogy of books packed with lessons, and values meant to learn to his readers, being kids. Contrary to Lewis, Pullman ‘s lessons are a bit more extremist due to the atheist side of Pullman. Pullman, being anti-Christian creates an underlining lesson that kids would n’t needfully pick up on which was the church. He creates the church as a inhibitory hierarchy which seeks to command its ‘ people. When evaluated more in deepness Mrs. Coulter could even be seen as Lyra ‘s Jesus, which is another construct excessively hard for this age group to hold on. Furthermore, dust can be seen as the kids ‘s Jesus from wickedness and all the bad things adult ups experience in life, nevertheless they need it to develop from a kid to adulthood, once more, a hard construct for immature kids to manage.

However, both writers ‘ books are filled with moral values expressed to immature kids. But have they changed over they old ages? We know that Lewis was the first to compose his series “ The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe, ” which contained hard, yet necessary lessons for kids to understand, like the chief subject of gluttony. These are lessons that need to be taught to kids, yet sometimes can frequently be overlooked, so these books are good to the readers. However, did Pullman take it excessively far?

Pullman, after 60 old ages, produced his series of provocative atheist books aiming kids, get downing with “ The Golden Compass. ” The degree of edification you need to hold to understand the full purposes is rather high for kids in Pullman ‘s series, which I believe was calculated, so his older readers had something deeper to understand. However, this does non conceal the fact that there are tonss of moral values that can be picked up by kids, such as the religion topic. While both writers ‘ purposes are to learn a lesson, I do believe these purposes have somewhat altered over the old ages.

From “ The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe, ” to “ The Golden Compass ” 60 old ages have past. C.S. Lewis wrote to inform of moral Christian values that he felt was necessary for kids to understand, and Philip Pullman wrote of ethical motives, nevertheless, from an atheist point of position for kids to understand. So what is the difference? I believe that this type of literature has non altered much, but has merely eventually become more extremist. Lewis was seeking to be a spot more conservative on this topic, while Pullman decided it was clip for readers to hear the truth, from his position. So, to reply the inquiry, has the morality of Christian values expressed in kids ‘s literature altered throughout the last 60 old ages – yes and no. No, the purposes have non changed ; they are created to learn kids of moral values. And yes, because the ways of showing these ethical motives have become much more extremist, and free.

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