Dante Alighieri ‘s The Divine Comedy consists of three heroic poem narratives of the poets Dante and Virgil as they venture through Hell, so Purgatory, and eventually Heaven. Dante ‘s Inferno serves as a work that continues to oblige its readers through prosecuting description of secret plan and improbably meaningful symbolism within each single circle of Hell. In Inferno, as Dante and Virgil make their manner through Hell, they come across a battalion of evildoers. Dante ‘s feelings vary from individual to individual. He feels understanding for some, but non for all.
Hell is a topographic point for all evildoers, peculiarly if the evildoers are non Romans. Because Dante considers Romans to be a theoretical account of flawlessness, bulk of the non-Roman evildoers lie in the deeper parts of Hell. In add-on, Dante points out several noteworthy political and spiritual figures who committed wickednesss during their life-times. Among these spiritual figures are Pope Celestine V who resides in The Vestibule, Pope Boniface VIII who resides in Circle Eight: Bolgia Three after he corrupted Celestine ( Dante considers him responsible for all of the immoralities that afflicted Flourence ) , Pope Anastasius who resides in Circle Six for unorthodoxy, Pope Nicholas III who was to win Boniface VIII and hence resides in Circle Eight: Bolgia Three, Mohammed who is responsible for the split in Christianity and resides in Circle Eight: Bolgia Nine, and Ali ( Mohammed ‘s boy, besides in Circle Eight: Bolgia Nine ) who is responsible for the split in Islam. One would believe that Dante, a devout Catholic, would non knock spiritual figures so harshly, particularly Popes. However, Dante criticizes these figures because he is a devout Catholic. In Hell, the entire denial and absence of God serves as a gateway into the darker wickednesss of force and maliciousness. Lower Hell consists of every Circle after Six because in Circle Six shack the misbelievers ; the evildoers who rejected God. By rejecting God, the evildoers in lower Hell corrupted themselves to perpetrate the most flagitious of wickednesss. Dante knew this when he wrote The Inferno. Once the denial of God comes into drama, people feel compelled to transgress because they believe that there is nil more for them. Dante writes that “ Violence may be offered the divinity / in the bosom that blasphemes and refuses Him / and scorns the gifts of Nature, her beauty and premium ” saying that wickednesss which stray from the class of human impulse become world ‘s pick to expose their rejection of God ( XI, 46-48 ) . Upon farther scrutiny in Dante ‘s authorship, it is clearly shown that Dante scorns the mistakes of the church more than he does political mistakes. This is supported by the fact that bulk of the people he mentions in lower Hell are corrupted spiritual figures and psyches who wholly lack God.
When Dante wrote of political figures, he placed them in his Hell harmonizing to their offenses, beliefs, and nationality which meant that if a evildoer was a Grecian they would endure worse penalties than a Roman. Dante ‘s belief that Romans were a theoretical account of flawlessness is displayed by the people in his novel. Julius Caesar, a Roman, resides in Limbo ( Circle One ) because he died before Christ was born and hence was ne’er able to accept God. Despite Caesar ‘s other wickednesss, he was still punished lightly. Dante ‘s composing looks past Roman mistakes and alternatively focal points on the mistakes of other races and faiths. The sowers of spiritual, political, and household strife are located in Circle Eight: Bolgia Nine. Dante references “ Mosca dei Lamberti, alas, who said / ‘A thing done has an terminal! ‘ and with those words / planted the Fieldss of war with Tuscan dead. ” ( XXVIII, 106-108 ) . In short, Lamberti was a political figure who was responsible for the bloody feud between the Ghibelline party and the Guelph party. Another political figure mentioned is Filippo Argenti, a political enemy of Dante ‘s. In Circle Five, Dante and Virgil cross the river Styx and topographic point Filippo. Dante states that “ it would accommodate [ his ] caprice / to see the wretch scrubbed down into the slop ” which pleases Virgil because Dante starts to experience no commiseration for the psyche of the wrathful ( VIII, 49-50 ) . Although, to some other political figures, Dante shows more indifference.
Looking back on the simoniacs in Circle Eight: Bolgia Three, they non merely rejected God, but they sold off ecclesiastic offices and favours for their ain benefit. This is where Pope Boniface VIII is located every bit good as Pope Nicholas who at first errors Dante for Boniface. Dante feels no commiseration for Nicholas, stating that he deserves his penalty. This one time once more pleases Virgil. In Bolgia Four, the luck Tellers and diviners are punished by holding their caputs put on backwards. These evildoers are punished because they used unhallowed powers in effort to see in front into the hereafter, now they can merely see backwards. Their wickedness reflects their entire jeer of God by exposing these alleged “ Godhead ” powers in an effort to excel God. Queerly, Dante feels commiseration for these evildoers which displeases Virgil who responds saying that “ There is no topographic point / for commiseration here. ” Virgil asks Dante “ Who is more chesty / within his psyche, who is more impious / than one who dares to grieve at God ‘s opinion? ” because the psyches deserve penalty, non commiseration.
Cocytus is the name of the concluding Circle of Hell. Circle Nine is where all of the treasonists are located. Treachery against one ‘s ain household, state, hosts, invitees, and Masterss is considered the worst sort of wickedness because it stems from pick. Treachery is non committed without idea or spiritual ground. This is established in Cocytus ( Circle Nine ) which is divided into four rings: Caina, Antenora, Ptolemea, and Judecca ( named for Cain, Mark Antony, Ptolemy, and Judas Iscariot severally ) . Cocytus is where all the rivers of Hell come together and freezing over. The evildoers lie everlastingly in the frozen contaminated Waterss and their places in the ice is determined by their wickedness ( Traitors to household are frozen cervix up, treasonists to state are frozen from the mentum up, treasonists to hosts and invitees are about wholly frozen with merely their faces confronting upward, and the treasonists to their Masterss are frozen wholly under the ice with their organic structures distorted ) . Satan is located at the centre of the ice. Satan ‘s three caputs, each a different colour, chew everlastingly on the three greatest treasonists of all: Caius Cassius, Marcus Brutus ( treasonists to Julius Caesar ) , and Judas Iscariot ( treasonist to Christ ) . Dante feels nil for the evildoers, merely wonder. The symbolism displayed in Cocytus is that the frozen river represents the entire absence of the “ heat ” of God. In add-on, Satan ‘s three caputs typify a jeer of the Holy Trinity. Before go forthing Hell, “ [ Virgil ‘s ] breath came sharp / with labour and exhaustion ” which in itself is a contradiction toward lip service because the poets are still alive even after their full journey ( XXXIV, 83-84 ) . Upon go forthing Hell, Dante and Virgil “ walked out one time more beneath the Stars ” which symbolizes the hope of God ( XXXIV, 143 ) . Dante capitalizes “ Stars ” because they serve as God ‘s heavenly symbol of hope and victory.
In Dante ‘s Hell, the evildoers must obey the jurisprudence of symbolic requital, intending that their penalty must accommodate their offense. Dante ‘s Inferno lets its readers know that Dante ‘s compassion for the evildoers in Hell was incorrect because they deserved their penalties. When Dante scorned other evildoers, Virgil displayed that it was right to take no commiseration on the wicked. Dante mocks the offices of spiritual and political figures because he points out that adult male is non perfect. He mocked the Popes of the Catholic church because he himself was a devout Catholic who recognized their defects. Looking back, it seems that the intent of Inferno was non merely to capture readers, but to besides assist them better themselves.