In this article. we present the construct of mathematical application undertakings as a agency to heighten the capablenesss of technology pupils to utilize mathematics for work outing jobs in larger undertakings every bit good as to pass on and present mathematical content. As opposed to many instance surveies. we concentrate on saying standards and undertaking categories from which teachers can construct cases ( i. e. specific undertakings ) . The chief end of this paper is to ease the definition of new „good“ undertakings in a certain curricular scene. 1. INTRODUCTION Learning and developing mathematical constructs and algorithms in technology sections of German Universities of Applied Sciences ( “Fachhochschulen” ) normally consists of a sequence of “small steps” with “small-sized” assignments. This is necessary in order to derive acquaintance without overloading pupils with excessively much complexness. But in the terminal. an applied scientist is required to utilize mathematics ( theoretical accounts. package ) for work outing jobs in larger undertakings every bit good as to pass on and present mathematical content.
Without besides larning this farther measure in mathematics instruction for applied scientists. mathematical cognition frequently remains “inert” ( Mandl ) . i. e. little balls of cognition are bing. but the capableness of how to use them for work outing a job is losing. As a redress. we introduced mathematical application undertakings in the 3rd semester ( Mathematics III ) after pupils have learnt basic mathematical constructs and symbolic calculation during semesters 1 and 2 in a mathematically consistent scene. The character and success of such undertakings to a great extent depends on the curricular embedding ( mathematical and application field cognition and capablenesss of pupils ) and on attach toing organisational and tutorial activities which we will depict in the following subdivision.
In order to truly accomplish the aims stated supra and to avoid defeat. undertakings have to be defined really carefully. As [ Ludwig ] already observed. whereas articles incorporating descriptions of particular undertakings or instance surveies are frequent ( californium. for technology mathematics: [ Mustoe ] . [ Westermann ] . [ Challis ] . [ Janetzko ] ) . there is merely few systematic work on undertakings. In order to prosecute a more systematic attack. we present and explicate several standards which undertakings in our curricular scene should carry through like openness. mathematical profusion. interesting and meaningful application context. serviceability of mathematical package. modularity.
In making this. we take into history standards stated by [ Ludwig ] . [ Reichel ] . [ Ernsberger ] . and [ Wilkinson ] . and we compare our type of undertakings with those described in literature. Specifying “good” undertakings harmonizing to these standards is still a time-consuming undertaking. We hence tried to place categories of application undertakings in mechanical technology doing definition of of all time new undertakings easier by constructing cases of such categories. This manner. single undertakings can be defined such there is no copying of work of other groups in the same category or in former categories. As a worked illustration for a undertaking belonging to one of the categories we so present the undertaking “Motion map for the Hockenheim motodrom” . Finally. we discuss our experience so far. 1
Proceedings der Int. Conf. on Technology in Math. Teaching ( ICTMT 5 ) . Klagenfurt 2001
2. CURRICULAR EMBEDDING AND ACCOMPANYING ACTIVITIES The mathematical portion of the mechanical technology course of study at the Aalen University of Applied Sciences consists of three classs to be taken in semesters 1. 2. and 3. severally. Mathematicss I and II are lectured traditionally. including a written test at the terminal. These classs contain the usual constructs of additive algebra and analysis. During the talks. application patterning belongingss of mathematical constructs which are of import in mechanical technology are already emphasized. Furthermore. an extra acquisition hypertext consisting of stuff on emphasis analysis and technology mechanics every bit good as links to underlying mathematical constructs is offered ( for a more elaborate descrition californium. [ Alpers. 1999 ] ) . Students get already an debut to the computing machine algebra system Maple™ . and a tutored assignment environment for mechanics is offered in Maple ( californium. [ Alpers. 2000 ] ) . Puting undertakings in the 3rd semester has the advantage that several application topics are available doing it possible to specify meaningful application undertakings. Concepts of technology mechanics ( statics. kinematics. etc. ) . stress analysis. natural philosophies. and CAD are available.
Mechanical constellations can be investigated in more depth mathematically. So far. the nexus between calculation in Computer Algebra Systems ( CAS ) and geometrical modeling in CAD has been exploited often. The theoretical content of Mathematics III consists basically of numerical methods ( numerical linear algebra. insertion. estimate. differential equations ) which frequently occur in application jobs. These are taught at the beginning of the semester ( hebdomads 1-5 ) in 14 talks such that pupils have adequate clip for using them in undertaking work afterwards. Students get full recognition points for supplying. documenting and showing a undertaking solution. Guidelines for composing the paperss and for fixing a presentation are given orally and as hand-out ( californium. [ Edwards ] as a usher for this ) . There is no longer a written test. There are squads of up to four pupils working hand in glove on one undertaking therefore furthering communicating capablenesss sing mathematical constructs.
Since each group works on a different undertaking. we avoid that one group works out a solution whereas others merely copy it. Students are expected to work about 20 hours each on the undertaking such that the overall attempt needed for supplying a solution should non transcend 80 hours per undertaking. This gives a unsmooth estimation on the size of a undertaking. Once. pupils needed this clip to work on assignments and for exam readying. so there is no extra burden on the pupils. All undertakings defined so far affect the use of computing machine algebra for “easy” modeling and calculation. Therefore. a short refreshing of Maple is offered and there is a pupil coach assisting with CAS jobs. Many undertakings besides contain patterning and production of numerical input files for a milling machine which is done utilizing a CAD system.
For larger groups. there is an extra pupil coach for CAD use. peculiarly for importing informations computed in Maple into the CAD system. Note that before the semester starts the pupils have already taken a practical class on utilizing a specific CAD system. Equally far as possible. we besides make usage of the installations ( parts. machines ) available in the departmental labs. e. g. measuring installations. produced parts. milling machine. Furthermore. we can utilize the cardinal natural philosophies lab for puting up certain experiments. The curricular scene in [ Wilkinson ] who follow a similar attack introducing undertakings for electrical applied scientists. differs from ours since their undertakings are smaller and positioned within the first twelvemonth of mathematical instruction. This makes our construct instead complementary than contrary to theirs. 3. CRITERIA FOR PROJECT DEFINITIONS As pointed out in the debut. most of the articles on mathematical undertakings describe particular undertakings or instance surveies. Besides this. [ Ludwig ] and [ Reichel ] are concerned with conceptual facets. i. e. designation of belongingss and types of mathematical undertakings in school.
Although our involvement is in university undertakings instead than in school undertakings. their work is general plenty to be of relevancy. [ Ludwig ] provides the undermentioned categorization: · Undertakings can hold a „magnetic mode“ or a „star mode“ depending on whether the undertaking is centered around an application subject necessitating ( „attracting“ ) several other countries or around a mathematical subject ramifying out into several applications. Our application undertakings clearly belong to the first category. · Undertakings can hold a „reflexion structure“ if they serve to acquire a deeper apprehension of the significance and pertinence of already known mathematical subjects ; or they can hold a „projection structure“ if they serve to develop and larn new mathematical constructs. Our undertakings have a contemplation construction since the mathematical subjects have been treated before. ·
Undertakings have a „line mode“ if starting point and end of the undertaking are clearly prescribed ( and possibly stairss or intimations on stairss are besides given. so pupils work „along the given line“ ) ; they have a „ray mode“ if merely a chief subject is given and students can work in different waies ( beams ) . We try to make a via media in our undertakings: Although the undertaking end is given. elucidation and treatment on significance is frequently required as is the instance in existent technology life. We will take this point into history in our list of standards below. [ Reichel ] make a differentiation between extra-mathematically and intra-mathematically motivated undertakings. Our undertakings are centered around an application subject and therefore clearly belong to the first category. On a different degree. Reichel distinguishes between undertakings which · service to develop a mathematical subject. · develop a mathematical subject. · make connexions between different subjects. · work on given or experimental informations. · train ways of mathematical thought. speech production and representation. · fix for a ulterior major undertaking.
In our undertakings. all of the above intents except for the 2nd one are of relevancy where the sheepskin thesis can be considered as the major undertaking at the terminal of the survey class. [ Ernsberger ] is concerned with interdisciplinary undertakings during the first period of survey in mechanical technology. He states the following standards such undertakings should carry through: · jobs should be solvable within the given timeframe · there should be at least two solution options · solutions should necessitate the use of many subjects taught in foundational categories · undertakings should non necessitate excessively much cognition. they should go forth room for students‘ involvement. Our ain standards are based on the above and on the curricular embedding outlined in the old subdivision: a ) The undertaking should be concerned with an – from a mechanical technology point of position – interesting and meaningful application topic.
This means that an application which is of import for mechanical applied scientists should supply the model for the undertaking. As mentioned above. [ Reichel ] calls such undertakings “extra-mathematically motivated projects” . [ Mustoe ] emphasizes the importance to happen the right balance between „meaningful“ and „too complex and difficult“ . In mechanical technology. mathematically “rich” subjects include design of parts ( curves. surfaces ) or design of gesture ( gesture curves. gesture maps ) . In the following subdivision we provide a set of application categories within which such subjects can be identified. These undertakings offer a good chance to beef up the connexions to application categories like technology mechanics or CAD. B ) The undertaking undertaking should include a data acquisition stage. sooner by taking maesurements in the labs. In order to heighten the connexion with the existent universe. informations which serve as input for 3mathematical processs. should be acquired by existent measurings in the labs which are available in a university environment.
Another manner could be data acquisition via the Internet for which we give an illustration below in subdivision 5. [ Challis ] provides a good illustration for „beginning with data“ . degree Celsius ) The undertaking should necessitate the application of of import mathematical constructs and theoretical accounts. Undertakings should necessitate a rich mathematical background. i. e. mathematics should play an indispensable function for work on a undertaking. To do this clearer. we give an illustration: If a undertaking is concerned with surface building ( say. for a portion of an car ) and the undertaking can be achieved merely by utilizing surface buildings available in a CAD plan where no mathematical apprehension is required. this would non represent a existent mathematical application undertaking. If. on the antonym. mathematical building of a Bezier or a spline surface and experimentation is an indispensable portion of the undertaking. the undertaking would carry through this standard.
vitamin D ) The undertaking should necessitate the application of mathematical package like CAS or numerical plans. In their practical life. applied scientists will frequently utilize mathematical constructs and theoretical accounts within mathematical plans. which may be symbolical ( computing machine algebra ) or numerical. Therefore. it makes sense to allow technology pupils apply mathematical constructs and put up mathematical theoretical accounts utilizing this sort of package. The package besides makes it possible to manage realistic application jobs which could non be dealt with utilizing paper and pencil. vitamin E ) The job description should be unfastened. it should non be excessively normative wrt. the manner of completion.
Whereas the usual “small” assignments provide a clear “work order” and largely serve to exert one construct in order to derive acquaintance. a undertaking undertaking should non depict the manner how to work out the job. It is merely the undertaking of the undertaking group. foremost to clear up the undertaking ( frequently matching with coachs including the writer ) as is normally the instance in existent life: First clear up with your client what the job truly is all about. and so believe about stairss. methods or theoretical accounts to undertake it. degree Fahrenheit ) The attempt necessary to accomplish fulfilling consequences must non be excessively big ( timeadequacy ) . As mentioned in the old subdivisions. pupils are assumed to work on the undertaking for about 20 hours each. It must be possible to acquire to sensible consequences within this timeframe. If more is required. there is the danger that pupils do non pass adequate clip on other topics ( Mathematics III has 2 hours out of 30 in the 3rd semester ) . On the other manus. there should be adequate work for 3 to 4 squad members.
g ) The undertaking undertaking should be modular such that subtasks can be delegated to team members. It is the purpose of squad work on undertakings that project squads think about the neccessary work to be done and set up a work program hand in glove. Undertaking undertakings should incorporate identifiable sub-parts which can be delegated to team members such that every squad member makes a existent part ( and is forced to make so since the overall undertaking is excessively much for merely one or two squad members to work on ) . This besides makes it possible to include weaker pupils. e. g. when measurings or existent production undertakings in milling machines are portion of the undertaking. It is surely difficult to specify undertakings which fulfill all of the above standards to full satisfaction. Ideas for undertakings can be collected from patterning books like [ Edwards ] or [ Fowkes ] . or from CAS manufacturers as in the [ Maple Application Center ] . Furthermore. application co-workers can be a really valuable beginning since they have an immediate involvement in the pupils working with their theoretical accounts. Finally. machine parts. experiments. and production machines in the labs may besides be rather inspiring.
In order to ease the work of the teacher specifying undertakings we set up several categories of mathematical application undertakings in mechanical technology which aid in specifying single undertakings. 4. CLASSES OF APPLICATION PROJECTS In the followers we describe a set of application undertaking categories and point out why cases fulfill ( at least most of ) the demands listed in the old subdivision. Although the classinstance-metaphor has been chosen deliberately. one should acknowledge that specifying concrete undertaking cases from the categories below is non every bit easy as declaring cases in objectoriented scheduling linguistic communications but still needs clip and some expecting ideas on how pupils might work on the undertaking. For infinite grounds. we merely depict one category in more item whereas for the others merely the chief subjects are mentioned. a ) Curve or surface Reconstruction Projects belonging to this category are concerned with the geometric Reconstruction of parts. Such a portion might be the door of a auto. a formed sheet metal. the clay theoretical account of a interior decorator portion or the transverse subdivision of knife in a slicing machine.
Reconstruction of bing objects is an of import portion in mechanical design such that the first standard mentioned above is surely fulfilled. The first undertaking in Reconstruction consists of mensurating points which so can be used for curve or surface building. Here. the first interesting inquiry for pupils is how to take measurings ( use of available mensurating instruments. point denseness ) . This is besides a subtask where theoretically weaker pupils can make more practical work. The mathematical topics which are needed are insertion or estimate ( sooner with splines or Bezier curves ) . and curves and surfaces in parametric quantity representation which are surely of import in technology applications. It is non possible to make the necessary computations by manus. so the application of mathematical package is required. As to the 5th standard ( openness ) . there are different grades of openness possible here: One could merely go forth it to the pupils which mathematical construct to utilize. or one could be a spot more normative.
This is besides connected with the 6th standard ( time-adequacy ) : If support for a certain sort of modeling ( e. g. a spline-package in Maple ) is available and this is the lone manner to finish work within a sensible timeframe. 1 might every bit good include it in the undertaking description. Using bing maps in a CAS environment still gives penetration in the mathematical construction of the consequence ( e. g. three-dimensional multinomial pieces of a spline ) . A farther portion of the undertaking could be to travel informations from the mathematical scheduling environment ( likely a CAS or numerical plan ) to CAD. One could. for illustration. curtail oneself to patterning merely curves within the mathematical job work outing environment. reassign the informations via a simple ASCII file interface to a CAD plan and do more sophisticated buildings in CAD ( building of surfaces through curves ) .
Get downing with a mathematical plan alternatively of instantly utilizing CAD has the advantage that pupils truly work mathematically and see the mathematical concept behind the geometrical objects which is non the instance if they merely click on a button named “construct spline” within the CAD environment. In a last measure pupils can even allow the CAD system produce a information file for a milling machine ( if available in the lab ) and allow the machine produce a ( little ) theoretical account. Whether or non this last measure is performed can besides depend on the capableness of the pupils working on the undertaking. Constructing existent parts which can even be used in lab machines ( e. g. guide blade of a turbine ) seems to be a great inducement peculiarly for strong pupils. Having different subtasks like measuring. mathematical building with CAS. and 5 geometric building with CAD makes it easy and necessary ( ! ) to depute work to team members such that each member should be involved.
Now. if an teacher wants to put up a undertaking of this category he/she foremost has to happen a machine portion ( auto door. linking rod. etc. ) with some freeform geometrical belongingss. and so has to make up one’s mind what should be modelled ( surface. cross-section etc. ) taking into history time-adequacy. He/she should cognize what measuring installations are avialable. These can be rather simple since a high preciseness Reconstruction is non required. Besides this. the teacher should happen out ( one time! ) the mathematical modeling support in the CAS or other plan ( bing processs ) . He/she should besides acquire information on simple file interfaces and patterning capablenesss of the CAD plan used in his/her establishment.
B ) Curve or surface synthesis Another of import undertaking in technology is the design of new objects. e. g. building the surface of a windshield or side mirror for an car. or a wing profile. Additionally. some practical restraints like maximal curvature should be portion of the undertaking description. Data acquisition here could dwell of mensurating boundary curves or jumping boxes. Mathematical constructs to be used are once more splines or Bezier curves and surfaces and their belongingss like curvature. Openness can be assured by giving merely restraints and perchance intimations on quality standards. Basic probe is to be performed in a CAS environment. more sophisticated probe of surface belongingss should so be done with CAD. Again. there are identifiable subtasks like measurings. CAS calculation. CAD probe. and perchance production. degree Celsius ) Motion curve and map synthesis The design of gesture is another cardinal undertaking in technology.
This includes gesture of machine parts like skidders in boxing machines every bit good as gesture of “free” organic structures like autos or independent automatons. Time-adequate undertakings can be defined in this country if simplifications are used. This will be demonstrated in more item in the following subdivision where a theoretical account of the Hockenheim motodrom is constructed utilizing discharge and line sections. The mathematical constructs required here are curves in parametric quantity representation including discharges and line sections. spline curves and more general piecewise-defined maps. Within the model of piecewise-defined maps subjects like continuity and differentiability come up rather of course. Furthermore. map synthesis as opposed to analysis outputs a broad field for unfastened experimentation. and inquiries refering quality standards or optimality besides show up.
Input informations for such undertakings might come from the Internet ( class informations ) or from the lab where e. g. the gesture way of a automaton arm around an obstruction must be determined. One could besides take a plaything motodrom as get downing point. Defining and experimenting with class and gesture map requires a mathematical plan ( sooner CAS ) since otherwise piecewise-defined maps can barely be handled. Modularity and therefore the possibility to depute undertakings can be achieved by placing the chief undertakings: informations acquisition. curve patterning. map modeling. Furthermore. this can be extended by inspiring the gesture or by even recognizing it in the lab. e. g. on a toy class.
vitamin D ) Comparison of simplified linear and exact non-linear theoretical accounts of mechanical constellations In technology mechanics. there are frequently simplified additive theoretical accounts every bit good as exact-nonlinear theoretical accounts of a constellation. Take for illustration the pendulum which can be modelled with a additive differential equation for little angles. the deflexionof a beam or the gesture of a slider-crank mechanism. Literature on technology mechanics or co-workers talking the topic can supply such illustrations. It is frequently possible to better the estimate by utilizing higher footings in the series representation. So. here is a broad field for look intoing multinomial estimates and their scope of cogency. Besides this. the mathematical content might include the numerical solution of differential equations. Within the labs. 6 such constellations are frequently available such that the cogency of a simplified theoretical account can besides be checked with existent experimental informations ( e. g. flexing a swayer ) .
Symbolic plans are utile peculiarly for series representation and work with multinomials of higher grade and besides for comparing with existent informations every bit good as for calculating numerical solutions of differential equations. Subtasks here are existent measurings. puting up additive and non-linear theoretical accounts. probe of mistakes. happening a simplified theoretical account within a given mistake edge. life or at least visual image. If a professional plan for calculating such constellations is available ( e. g. for multibody kineticss ) it is besides interesting to compare consequences and see which pattern the plan uses. vitamin E ) Parameter-identification in mechanical constellations Many theoretical accounts contain parametric quantities that are unknown and can merely be approximated utilizing experimentation informations. This is. for illustration. frequently the instance for spring or muffling invariables.
Geting experimental informations from such constellations ( e. g. gesture informations ) is the get downing point for an estimate procedure utilizing the least squares method. If no lab experiments are available. one can besides – as a replacement – produce informations ( e. g. a curve on paper ) . The undertakings can be unfastened in that pupils have to believe about what sort of informations ( how much and when ) they need and which category of theoretical account maps for estimate is equal. The theoretical account including the unknown invariables can easy be set up with CAS. and this besides holds for calculating amounts of squares of differences. partial derived functions and solution of the ensuing additive or non-linear system.
For theoretical accounts where some of the unknown invariables are nonlinear. it is frequently possible to utilize first approximate values. use additive least squares and utilize the end product as get downing vector for non-linear least squares. It is rather obvious that a rich set of mathematical constructs can be applied in this context. For some constellations it is easy to make an life which can be done by one squad member. degree Fahrenheit ) Signal analysis Signal analysis is an of import portion in mensurating theory. Often. „noise“ has to be removed in order to retrace the “real” behavior of a machine portion. Another of import field of application is proficient acoustics. The most outstanding method of analysis is the building of approximate Fourier multinomials ( DFT ) . For existent mathematical probe a mathematical plan is required. non merely an „fft-button“ of an application plan.
Signals can be produced by overlapping different sine maps including high-frequency noise or they can be recorded in the lab ; the ensuing * . wav-file can be converted into an ASCII sample file which so is to be investigated in a mathematics plan ( see besides the [ Maple Application Center ] for managing * . wav-files in Maple ) . Students have to believe about trying rates. remotion of frequences. numerical storage of the unflurried signal. Such signals can be made hearable with freeware plans or specific Maple processs. As to modularity. one can place as sub-tasks: signal recording. production of numerical sample. DFT in CAS. probe and alteration of spectrum. production of end product for an audio tool.
As to openness. it is up to the pupils how to enter. to experiment with sample rates. and to experiment with remotion of frequences. g ) Gesture or signal synthesis with fourier multinomials In Cam design. the building of periodic maps carry throughing certain demands is necessary ( e. g. . prescription of points. line sections or other functional pieces necessary for vouching synchronism ) . For this synthesis undertaking. come closing fourier multinomials are used in order to avoid the happening of eigenfrequencies ( merely sine maps with frequence below the first eigenfrequency of the aroused system are used ) . It is surprising for pupils how good even consecutive lines can be approximated with merely few frequences. Another similar interesting field is the building of audio signals with fourier synthesis.
H ) Synthesis of machine parts under certain restraints In the design of machine parts or little buildings which is the topic of an of import talk in mechanical technology. frequently parameter fluctuation. functional dependences ( where do I derive most? ) and optimisation inquiries are interesting. Examples can be provided by the individual talking the topic or can be found in books on machine elements. I ) Means of curve. surface and volume building in CAD plans CAD plans contain a assortment of building methods for geometric objects ( offset curves and surfaces. rotary motion of curves. blending. sweeping etc. . californium. [ March ] ) . and during the CAD talk merely the basic 1s can be dealt with. Furthermore. pupils barely see what is “behind the button” . In mathematical undertakings. some of these can be investigated in more item where CAS is an equal computational environment. Geometric objects computed in CAS can be imported in CAD and compared with the CAD building.
J ) Approximative building of parts with decreased modeling possibilities Some production machines can merely work with a decreased set of geometrical objects: An older turning lathe. for illustration. can merely cover with polygonial cross-sections. i. e. line sections. and the milling machine can merely cover with line sections or discharge. So. an interesting inquiry with a high potency for experimentation is how to come close a given curve ( multinomial. spline. etc. ) by utilizing the available objects. K ) Construction of mathematical representations for interface definitions Standardized ASCII-file interfaces in CAD ( like STEP-ISO 10303. VDA-FS by the German Association of Automotive Industry ) enable the description of a batch of geometrical objects ( lines. multinomial curves. spline curves etc. ) . Such objects can be computed in a CAS ( or numerical ) environment. written into a file adhering to the criterion under consideration. and read into a CAD plan.
Here once more. CAS and CAD secret plans can be compared. 5. WORKED Example: MOTION FUNCTION FOR HOCKENHEIM MOTODROM The undertaking description handed out to the pupil group had the undermentioned content: Undertaking: Hockenheim Motodrom „Model the Hockenheim motodrom mathematically and build a sensible gesture map taking into history realistic limitations. Supply a simple life with Maple. “ This undertaking clearly belongs to category degree Celsius ) „Motion curve and map synthesis“ although the curve synthesis is non free since the Hockenheimring should be modelled. Students started with the informations aqcuisition stage which chiefly consisted of acquiring class and related informations from Internet sites ( here: World Wide Web. hockenheimring. Delaware ) . In peculiar. they retrieved a simple class theoretical account dwelling of line sections and discharge ( so width was non modelled which is sensible for cut downing complexness ) .
They foremost used this information for retracing the class with a CAD system since they were already accustomed to building cross-sections utilizing line sections and discharge. Using these objects in CAD and puting up a mathematical representation in CAS are rather different. For the latter. the mathematical construct to be used are curves in parametric quantity representation. Students had to recover their cognition on lines and discharge in parameter representation: line sections between two points are normally constructed with a parametric quantity running from 0 to 1 and arcs by running through the angle subdivision.
In the following measure. they had to build a piecewise-defined curve with merely one running parametric quantity. so pupils had to believe about re-parameterization. For ulterior building of a gesture map and life. arc-length parameterization is the most utile one but at this phase this is non necessary. The ensuing curve with some simplifications ( non all chicanes are modelled ) is shown below. For building a sensible gesture map. first realistic restraints had to be identified. These can besides be found in the Internet. Students decided to utilize information on maximal speed in curves ( depending on the radius ) . maximal speed of the auto. and maximal positive and negative acceleration. They worked with a simple theoretical account where merely full positive or negative accelleration was allowed. and made usage of their kinematics knowledge learnt in technology mechanics. They constructed the map V ( s ) ( speed depending on distance ) utilizing changeless accelleration a0 which is in general given by V ( s ) = ( v 0 – 2a0 s0 ) + 2 ? a0 ? s 2 ( v0 and s0 are initial speed and distance resp. ) .
The challenge here is to build the parts in such a manner that accelleration is stopped early plenty such that the maximal speed allowed is non exceeded. So. pupils truly had to „construct with functions“ even if the maps under consideration ( square root and changeless maps ) are simple. The ensuing map is shown below. The last measure so was to calculate the distance map s ( T ) from V ( s ) which is besides treated in the technology mechanics category. Here. first T ( s ) is computed utilizing s Ds T ( s ) = t 0 + o . This map is invertible since in Formula 1 traveling back is merely 5 ( s ) s0 sensible if you ended up in the crushed rock but driver errors are non modelled here! Having the gesture map s ( T ) . one can calculate the lap clip. This is an of import point for commanding whether or non the modeling and the simplifications are equal since lap times are besides given as empirical informations. It turned out that the lap clip of the constructed gesture map was a few seconds better than the empirical lap times which is a hearty consequence.
Finally. to acquire an optical representation and control. a Maple life was set up by allowing a little circle move around the class harmonizing to the gesture map. Here. every bit good as for building the piecewise-defined class curve and gesture map. the use of a mathematics plan. sooner a CAS. is inevitable. Three pupils worked on the undertaking. one utilizing CAD modeling. one building the curve and the life and the last one working on the gesture map in CAS. so the deputation facet was satisfactorily realized. Yet. pupils worked more than the envisaged 20 hours each. peculiarly on the CAS portion. Although the mathematics needed for this undertaking is non peculiarly hard. pupils realized how to use it and got a much deeper apprehension of parameterization and piecewisedefined maps which is an of import subject in technology modeling.
6. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS In the summer term 2000. there were 11 pupils working on 3 undertakings. in the winter term 2000/01 59 pupils working on 16 undertakings. In general. motive was good to really high. merely one group out of 16 did non pull off to complete the undertaking. A positive facet of undertakings defined harmonizing to the standards stated in subdivision 3 is that pupils either truly work on and are committed to such a undertaking and so win ( with aid ) or they will neglect. So there is no „quick acquiring through“ . avoiding the consequence that pupils learn to a great extent one hebdomad before an test merely to bury it with the same velocity afterwards.
The writer as teacher had several meetings with undertaking groups for elucidation of undertakings. mathematical content. how to continue and divide work. and treatment about sensible undertaking simplifications and limitations. The writer acted as „customer“ the pupils had to collaborate with and to fulfill slightly resembling the existent universe of a practising applied scientist. The reaction of pupils was in general positive but some complained about the work load. partly stemming from unequal distribution of work within groups. partly because the undertakings were instead disputing whereas small-sized assignments and tests were familiar and easier to manage. This applies peculiarly to weaker pupils who needed more aid and intimations. whereas stronger pupils instead appreciated the bigger challenge and frequently worked much more than required. But besides the weaker pupils got a better apprehension of using mathematics and were content at the terminal when they managed to come to a consequence.
When puting up the undertaking undertakings for the summer term 2001 ( 9 undertakings ) and the winter term 01/02 ( 20 undertakings ) . the standards and categories outlined in subdivisions 3 and 4 were both applied and further developped. Having made standards clear and holding a set of categories made the undertaking definition well easier but this undertaking is still time-consuming. The writer intends to do a ( turning ) set of undertaking category and case descriptions available via the Internet. It would besides be helpful to put up a common library of undertakings and undertaking categories as was suggested by [ Challis ] .
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