The thought of martyrdom can be traced back to the day of the months of Judeo Christian epoch, even before that period people sacrificed their lives for their beliefs. However the regard got associated with the construct of martyrdom merely after the constitution of the faiths in an organized signifier. That is, when the thought of Heaven and Hell emerged as the wages or penalty for a individual ‘s workss ( after his decease ) . The construct was foremost adopted by the Semitic religions like Judaism, Christianity and Islam. And in each religion the construct was modified consequently, in order to accommodate the several philosophies of the peculiar religion. On the other manus the old faiths of the E: Hindooism and Buddhism, does non look to hold adopted the construct of martyrdom while as Sikhism being one of the youngest faiths in the universe, arising in India has adopted the thought of martyrdom.
Both Islam and Sikhism are monotheistic faiths and set accent on one supreme God. In Guru Granth Sahib ( sacred text of Sikhs ) , in the really first poetry it is mentioned,
“ There exists but one God, who is called The True, The Creator, Free from fright and hatred, Immortal, Not engender, Self-Existent, Great and Compassionate. ”
And in Quran ( the Holy Book of Muslims ) it is clearly mentioned,
“ Say, ‘He is God, the One, God, the Self-sufficient One. He does non give birth, nor was He born, and there is nil like Him. ” ( 112:1-4 )
Martyrdom in Islam
The construct of martyrdom in Islam has originated from the basic literature of Islam i.e. Quran and Hadith. The Qur’an says:
“ Do non state that those who are killed in God ‘s cause are dead ; they are alive, but you are non cognizant of it. “ A ( Quran 2:154 )
“ If you are killed or die in God ‘s cause, so certainly forgiveness from God and His grace are better than all one could accumulate. ” ( Quran 3:157 )
And there are legion other poetries in Quran were the wages and value of martyrdom is discussed. These poetries give a clear message that a sufferer receives a wages which no other individual can bask. For illustration, a dead organic structure of ordinary individual is bathed before being buried, but the organic structure of a sufferer is non bathed before being buried as it is considered to be purified by martyrdom. The sufferer by giving away his life, in the cause of Allah, purifies himself and all his wickednesss are erased.
In Islam, sufferer are loosely classified into two groups. First, the 1s who die while contending for the cause of Allah that is ‘Jehad ‘ and 2nd, the 1s who die because of natural catastrophes or due to certain types of diseases. Although the ulterior non acquiring the acknowledgment and intervention in this universe, like the 1s who die while contending for the cause of Allah, are promised the wagess of Martyrdom in the afterlife.
To understand the construct of Martyrdom it is indispensable to be cognizant of the construct of Jehad in Islam, which in bend can merely be understood if the construct of doing differentiation between right and incorrect, good and evil is understood. The construct or the thought of martyrdom in Islam is wholly linked with the whole faith of Islam, and therefore it is of import to understand the significance of Islam. The word ‘Islam ‘ has been derived from Arabic word ‘Salama ‘ which literally means ‘Surrender ‘ and ‘Peace ‘ . Thus Islam means complete and peaceable entry to Allah ( the Lord of the Universe ) , which means a Muslim ( who follows the instructions of Islam ) should ever be prepared to decease for the cause of Allah. The construct of Jehad emerged after Muslims in Mecca were forced by the idolizers to go forth their places which marked the historic migration of Muslims from Mecca to Medina. And when Muslims were taking safety in Medina the idolizers of Mecca jealous of the Prophet of Islam ( PBUH ) , planned to assail and complete Muslims one time for all and the first conflict took topographic point at Badr in which the idolizers were severely defeated. In order to take the retaliation, the idolizers of Mecca prepared for the following war which took topographic point in Uhud, in which Muslims once more won but suffered good sum of losingss. While seeing a figure of comrades of Prophet ( PBUH ) lying on the land, Zaid Bin Haris ( RA ) ‘Adopted boy of Prophet Muhammad ( PBUH ) ‘ , said, “ Listen idolizers your work forces will fire in snake pit fire and our brothers who achieved martyrdom for the cause of Allah will come in the promised Paradise ” .
The martyrdom of Imam Hussain ( RA ) , Grandson of Prophet Muhammad ( PBUH ) , and other comrades of Prophet ( PBUH ) have strengthened the value of Quranic poetries and had emotional deduction on the heads and Black Marias of Muslims. For a individual martyrdom becomes acceptable merely when he breaks all the relation with the material universe as it would non be possible to give away life when you value it most. Extreme hatred or desire for retaliation can besides actuate a individual to give away his life to ache his enemy, but the construct of martyrdom in Islam is in entire contrast with it. In ulterior class, a individual attains martyrdom to acquire the wages in the afterlife and to liberate himself from the universe of irresistible impulses and desires.
The Martyrdom of Imam Hussain ( RA ) , became a symbol of good and evil for the Muslim universe. Muslims all over the universe has taken inspiration from the Martyrdom of Imam Hussain ( RA ) in contending subjugation. One such event being the Islamic Revolution of Iran, in which the participants aligned themselves with the symbol of Imam Hussain ( RA ) . It was Imam Hussain ( RA ) , who formed the footing of the construct of contending against oppressive forces, even if one has to give his life for it. In this manner, like we have seen in the Persian revolution, the construct of Martyrdom gives an drift in call uping people for a mass motion against subjugation.
Many Muslim and non-Muslim bookmans and theologists have misunderstood the construct of Martyrdom in Islam. Since Martyrdom and Jehad are closely associated with each other, most of the non-Muslim bookmans define Jehad as Holy war due to which they neither understand Jehad nor Martyrdom in Islam. It is of import to understand the construct of martyrdom within the cloth of Islam because Islam has introduced its ain thought of Martyrdom. Struggle for sanctum cause and the construct of Martyrdom are interrelated as both of the words have been repeatedly used in the Holy Quran. In fact, without the battle for the cause of truth and for Allah ‘s cause there is no Martyrdom in Islam. The of import keyword here is ‘truth ‘ , the battle and battle for it, its acknowledgment and the declaration every bit good as the preparedness to decease for the interest of truth. The end or the chief aim is the formation of truth and Jehad is one of the agencies for set uping the truth which may take to martyrdom. It is of import to observe here that Jehad does non necessarily take to being killed in a conflict.
Therefore it is clear that there can be no Jehad and Martyrdom outside the sphere of truth. Shahada ( martyrdom ) is merely applied when it is introduced by Jehad and this Jehad is the inclusive battle for the truth which is obvious from the fact, that a individual is considered a sufferer, no affair if he does non decease in a conflict field. This position is given to him on the status that he stays really loyal to the truth and remains ever ready to support and contend for it, without worrying about his life.
Martyrdom and Suicide Bombing
Martyrdom in the cause of Allah is considered one of the greatest workss and the sufferer destined to paradise, while as the self-destruction is considered one of the worst workss, the penalty for which is the red region. In the Islamic history, the erudite bookmans of Islam ne’er confused the two footings. But with the coming of self-destruction bombardment in the modern times, it has become hard to separate the two, as the self-destruction bombardment is justified with the textual support for being martyrdom. However, before this new phenomenon of self-destruction bombardment, there is no grounds in the Islamic history, where a individual is praised for willfully taking his life while contending an enemy either on or off the conflict field.
Most of the Islamic bookmans differ with the readings, of Quran and expressions of Prophet Muhammad ( PBUH ) ( Hadith ) , which justify suicide bombardment. For illustration a senior Orthodox Sunni Muslim bookman, Imam ibn Uthaymeen, keep suicide bombardment to be against the instructions of Islam and is hence forbidden. Apart from a few Islamic Scholars most see suicide bombardment Haram. However, none of the Islamic bookmans permit any self-destructive action against the non-military ( civilian ) marks. The statements put away by the protagonists of the so called martyrdom operations ( suicide bombardment ) , when compared with the basic Islamic literature ( Quran and Hadith ) prove to be highly weak. However as can be seen in Pakistan, Palestine, Iraq etc were suicide bombardment has become a everyday is the consequence of false reading of Quran and Hadith. It becomes easy for the Masterss of so called Jehad to work youngsters/teenagers by purchasing them a dream for Eden in which they are promised all sorts of pleasances. For illustration, if a adult male is martyred he will have 72 virgins ( Hur ) in Eden as a wages, while as a adult females sufferer is promised that she will go more beautiful than a Hur apart from other countless wagess.
Martyrdom in Sikhism
Guru Nanak, being the laminitis of the faith ( Sikhism ) besides laid the foundation of the construct of Martyrdom in Sikhism. It is considered as one of the most cardinal thought which represents an of import pillar of Sikhism. Guru Nanak, the laminitis of Sikhism references in the beginning of his anthem “ JAPUJI ” that the end of the adult male is to populate harmonizing to the will of God. He farther references that to follow truth and destruct the falsity is merely possible if a individual follows the will of God. Guru Nanak says that “ life is a game of love ” and suggests all worlds to follow this way. In order to follow this way, Guru Nanak has stressed that the establishment of martyrdom is a really of import tool.
The construct of Martyrdom in Sikhism is wholly different from other faiths which laid down accent on the forfeit of animate beings in order attain personal redemption and to pacify other Gods. While as in Guru Granth Sahib ( the sacred text of Sikhs ) the forfeit of animate beings to pacify Gods or for personal redemption is extremely detestable. More accent has been laid to populate a life for the cause of love to contend the subjugation. Guru Nanak says that if a individual is fond of God he does non necessitate to care about “ MUKTI ” ( personal redemption ) and Eden. Guru ARJUN ( The fifth Guru of Sikhs ) sacrificed his life for the truth of his religion. When the Guru was in prison, he told Pir Mian Mir ( a Sufi saint, when he had come to run into him ) , that he had gone through the anguish and wretchedness merely to put himself as an ideal for the ordinary individual so that they would be able to cover with the enduring if they had to face it because, a individual holding power to cover with the agony but he does non demo it and leaves his faith in order to salvage himself from the anguish becomes an enemy of the faith.
Guru Arjun ‘s martyrdom is treated as a landmark in Sikhism. Many historiographers like Mohsin Fani and H R Gupta stressed that at the clip of Mughal Empire, the armed forces of Mughals believed that the Sikh Gurus were running their ain community within the province. Beni Prasad, who worked as a historiographer of Jahangir stated that Guru Arjun was back uping Khusro to contend against Emperor Jahangir economically. The emperor knew about it and therefore decided to put to death guru and to take all his belongings under his control. Now, the inquiry arises what made Guru to take such a measure against the Emperor. It could be answered by the facts that the Guru collected money by the system of ‘Daswandh ‘ ( 10 % of one ‘s income to charity ) . He decided non to pay the mulct which was imposed on him by the Emperor, alternatively gave all the money to Khusro. He died for the truth of his religion and from that onwards combativeness found a topographic point in Sikhism. The readying for the armed opposition became a normal modus operandi when the clip of 6th guru came. He believed that giving life for the poke of faith is a responsibility which a spiritual individual must execute because it will open the doors of Eden for him. Those who are the adherents of Guru are considered pure and any account for their workss would non be demanded on the twenty-four hours of opinion. Diing for the religion is considered as an act of gallantry and martyrdom which attracted 1000s of the Sikhs to give their lives in the way of faith.
Guru Tej Bahadur, who is considered as the 9th Guru of Sikhs, prepared his military and started a battle against the Emperor to organize a new state. When the Emperor came to cognize about it, he gave him the pick that if he does ceasefire and reorient his mission for praying and giving sermon of Sikhism merely so his demand will be accepted. But the Guru bluffly rejected the offer inspite of cognizing the desperate effects. Guru Tej Bahadur, along with Bahi Mati Das and Dayal Das became martyrs while they were triying to contend against the forced transition of Hindus in Kashmir. Other Gurus like Guru Gobind Singh and Banda are besides celebrated for their battle. In the Sikh tradition those work forces who were killed in any conflict like at Chamkor Sahib and at Muktsar are considered as Sikh sufferer.
The modern-day Sikh community has taken inspiration from these brave and heroic martyrdom narratives. During early 1880ss the rebellion of Sikhs in Punjab against Indian province is considered as the battle for the cause of truth by many extremist Sikhs. A figure of young person killed while contending against Indian Military are being termed as sufferer. The most tragic of all the events was of June-4th 1984, when the Sikh activists were concealing in the Golden Temple and Indian military, on the orders of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, entered the sacred temple and killed all the activists concealing inside including Sant Bindranwale. The operation non merely killed the activists inside the temple but lead to the devastation of Golden Temple every bit good. Binranwale and his Companions were termed as sufferer by their followings and was perceived by them as if Bindranwale and company were contending for the holiness of their faith.
From the above sum-ups of the construct of martyrdom in Islam and Sikhism we can see a figure of similarities. Sikhism on one side had laid accent on contending for the will of God and for the cause of truth, even if one has to give his life for the same and Islam besides stresses, Muslims to contend against the oppressor for the cause of Allah. In Islam a individual can be a Martyr even if he does non decease in contending piece as in Sikhism a individual can be Martyr merely if he dies in a battle against oppressor, inequality or unfairness. The 6th Guru in Sikhism has explained the spiritual duty of Sikh as assisting and protecting the weak and laden people by facing the oppressive and unfair powers, even if they have to give their lives for the cause. The 5th Guru ( Guru Arjun ) , was the first to give his life for the truth of his religion, beef uping the very establishment of Martyrdom. Ninth and the ten percent Gurus had besides sacrificed their all for the religion. The Sikh Gurus by giving their lives have non merely showed that martyrdom is the indispensable and the most of import establishment of Sikhism but have educated people for giving their lives for the truth and justness.
In Islam the martyrdom of Imam Hussain ( RA ) is seen as the symbol of righteousness and opposition against the oppressor. The early sufferer of Islam are the 1s who have shown bravery, endurance and doggedness against the autocrats. They continued their actions even if they had to confront the decease, the driving force being the confidence of the wages in the afterlife.