This papers is one of a series of free information tools for exporters produced by New Zealand Trade and Enterprise. New Zealand Trade and Enterprise provides a broad scope of standard services and sophisticated solutions that aid concerns through every phase of the export procedure. For information or advice. phone New Zealand Trade and Enterprise on 0800 555 888. visit World Wide Web. nzte. govt. nz. or reach your New Zealand Trade and Enterprise client director. CONTENTS 1 MARKET STRUCTURE 1. 1 Market Overview 1. 2 1. 3 1. 4 1. 5 1.

There's a specialist from your university waiting to help you with that essay.
Tell us what you need to have done now!


order now

6 2 2 Market Drivers Market Potential Import Trends Key Players in the Market Regulatory Sustainability 3 3 6 7 7 8 9 11 12 12 12 12 13 13 14 MARKET ENTRY AND DEVELOPMENT 2. 1 Market Entry Strategies 2. 2 2. 3 2. 4 2. 5 Points of Differentiation Long Term Strategic Issues for Exporters to See Distribution Channels Pricing 3 MARKET RESOURCES AND CONTACTS 2/ Exporter Guide | Indonesia | Food and Beverage | February 2012 1 Market STRUCTURE Indonesia is the world’s 4th most thickly settled state with a population of 232. 5 million in 2010. and the largest economic system in Southeast Asia.

In 2011. New Zealand’s nutrient and drink exports totalled US $ 468. 3 million. doing Indonesia New Zealand’s 11th largest export finish. I In November 2011. Indonesia provided formal presentment of the completion of its internal confirmation processs to enable the ASEAN – Australia – New Zealand Free Trade Agreement ( AANZFTA ) . From 10 January 2012. AANZFTA will open up considerable chances for New Zealand concerns. The understanding will let responsibility / duty free entree to over 90 per centum of New Zealand goods and services by 2015.

ii 1. 1 Market Overview In 2010 and 2011. dairy and meat merchandises comprised over 76 per centum of New Zealand’s nutrient and drink exports to Indonesia ( 2010: US $ 363 million ; 2011: US $ 381 million ) . In 2010. Indonesia’s dairy and meat market was deserving an estimated US $ 2 billion. The bulk of the population in Indonesia. about 85 per centum. are Muslim and all slaughtered nutrient and meat ( excepting porc ) must hold halal enfranchisement. iii 3/ Exporter Guide | Indonesia | Food and Beverage | February 2012 1. 1.

1 Market by merchandise class Packaged nutrient In 2010. Indonesia’s packaged nutrient market was valued at US $ 19. 1 billion. The sale of impulse and indulgence merchandises ( i. e. cocoas ) grew due to increasing richness. Nutrition and basics ( i. e. rice ) grew by 31 per centum in 2010. Canned / preserved nutrient had a high growing rate of 20 per centum in 2010. Dutch east indies: Gross saless of Packaged Food by Category: Value 2005-2010 in million USD 2007 Packaged Food – Total Nutrition/staples ( i. e. rice ) Dried Processed Food ( i. e. sweet mixes. instant soup ) Impulse and Indulgence Products ( i. e. cocoa coated biscuits ) Bakery Dairy Noodles Baby Food Confectionery Meal Solutions ( i. e. tomato pastes ) .

Sweet and Savoury Snacks Oils and Fats Sauces. Dressings and Condiments Frozen Processed Food Ice Cream Canned/Preserved Food Chilled Processed Food Spreads Meal Replacement ( i. e. breakfast bars ) Pasta Ready Meals ( i. e. instant pasta ) Snack Bars Soup 13. 110 7. 876 4. 089 4. 148 2. 111 1. 484 1. 340 1. 257 1. 287 1. 086 779 759 477 263 245 200 63 62 13 11 4 0. 9 3 2008 14. 307 8. 798 4. 642 4. 318 2. 201 1. 540 1. 487 1. 398 1. 329 1. 190 812 909 499 306 269 230 68 65 15 12 4 3 3 2009 14. 817.

9. 167 4. 909 4. 404 2. 238 1. 596 1. 526 1. 496 1. 360 1. 244 832 845 510 327 278 251 68 66 16 13 4 3 3 2010 19. 100 11. 959 6. 515 5. 506 2. 781 2. 026 1. 999 1. 967 1. 704 1. 634 1. 054 1. 039 653 439 356 346 86 82 21 17 5 4 4 Beginning: Euromonitor International ( NB: IDR/USD currency ; [ 2007 ] 9141. [ 2008 ] 9699. [ 2009 ] 10389. 9. [ 2010 ] 9090. 4 ) 4/ Exporter Guide | Indonesia | Food and Beverage | February 2012 Fresh nutrient In 2010. the fresh nutrient market in Indonesia had a entire volume of 48. 1 million metric tons. doing Indonesia the fifth largest fresh nutrient market in the universe. During the period 20052010. demand of fresh nutrient increased by 13 per centum.

four Indonesia: Fresh nutrient market in Indonesia in million metric tons Starchy Roots Fruits Vegetables Fish and Seafood Meat Sugar and Sweeteners Eggs Nuts Pulses 2007 14. 985 10. 386 9. 095 5. 016 1. 969 1. 778 743 671 222 2008 15. 148 10. 786 9. 356 5. 153 2. 024 1. 825 761 700 224 2009 15. 309 11. 147 9. 613 5. 291 2. 078 1. 872 777 730 227 2010 15. 455 11. 489 9. 868 5. 432 2. 138 1. 914 794 762 230 2011f 15. 582 11. 787 10. 119 5. 592 2. 188 1. 952 808 798 234 Beginning: Euromonitor International ( NB: 2011 prognosiss ) Wineiv In 2011. the Indonesian vino market was deserving about US $ 32 million ( RP 275. 4 billion ) and retail gross revenues totalled 3.

1 million liters. Wine accounted for merely 3 per centum of entire intoxicant gross revenues. Beer is well more popular as an alcoholic drink. During the period 2008-2010. vino volume gross revenues declined by 6 per centum. While monetary values increased. the demand from Indonesian consumers with high disposable incomes and exiles remained and the figure of wine partisans in Indonesia grew. The growing was influenced by western civilization and wine events such as vino tasting. vino dinners and categories. The vino market showed an addition in gross revenues by value of 61 per centum during the period 2008-2010.

V Dutch east indies: Wine Gross saless Off-trade Value in million USD Off-trade Volume in million liters 2006 12. 0 3. 3 2007 14. 0 3. 4 2008 15. 0 3. 4 2009 16. 0 3. 3 2010 28. 0 3. 2 2011 32. 0 3. 1 Beginning: Euromonitor International ( NB: IDR/USD currency ; [ 2006 ] 9159. 3. [ 2007 ] 9141. [ 2008 ] 9699. [ 2009 ] 10389. 9. [ 2010 ] 9090. 4. [ 2011 ] 8696. 1 ) 1. 1. 2 Market by distribution channel Mass food market retail In 2011. traditional retail merchants. consisting little independent shops and unfastened air markets. accounted for an estimated 77 per centum of the entire retail gross revenues. seven 5/ Exporter Guide | Indonesia | Food and Beverage | February 2012

In the organized retail sector. Hypermarkets had the largest market portion in 2010. with US $ 13. 6 billion in gross revenues. followed by supermarkets ( US $ 11 billion ) and convenience shops / mini-markets ( US $ 5 billion ) . During the period 2005-2010. supermarket gross revenues increased by 112 per centum. followed by hypermarkets ( 109 per centum ) and convenience shops / mini-markets ( 105 per centum ) . Mass Grocery Retail Sector – Estimated Number of Outlets 2005 Total Convenience Stores / Mini-Markets Supermarkets Hypermarkets Source: Business Monitor International 2006 7. 154 3. 337 3. 173 644 2007 8. 530 3. 953 3. 830 747 2008 9. 429 4. 334 4. 297 798.

2009 10. 572 4. 871 4. 801 900 2010 11. 524 5. 299 5. 252 973 5. 912 2. 758 2. 652 502 1. 2 Market Drivers The following are viewed as cardinal drivers for the nutrient and drink market in Indonesia: ? The nutrient and drink market in Indonesia grew in 2010. retrieving from the world-wide recession. Buying power of center and upper income consumers revived with an addition of disposable income. Political and economic conditions stabilised and the figure of modern retail mercantile establishments and nutrient service retail merchants grew. six Consumers are encompassing the wellness witting tendency seen throughout the universe. as a consequence of exposure to wellness instruction through the media.

six To run into the increasing demand of educated and wellness witting consumers. the Indonesian authorities has taken on enterprises such as the Merauke Integrated Food and Energy Estate undertaking. Through this US $ 5 billion undertaking. the authorities expects to bring forth about 2 million metric tons of rice. 2 million metric tons of maize. 2. 5 million metric tons of sugar. 937. 000 metric tons of palm oil. 167. 000 metric tons of soy beans and croping land for 64. 000 cowss. seven In April 2010. revenue enhancement on vino increased significantly ensuing in an addition in wine monetary values.

Approximately 45 per centum of the cost paid by consumers is revenue enhancement. including gross revenues revenue enhancement ( VAT ) . excise and import revenue enhancement. V While traditional markets still account for the bulk of retail gross revenues. they face greater force per unit area on market portion as modern retail becomes more popular. While the authorities tried to deter the rapid spread of modern retail. it wasn’t successful in implementing its legislative ordinances and modern retail merchants increased in Numberss by utilizing bogus licenses in some instances. iii? ? ? ? 6/ Exporter Guide | Indonesia | Food and Beverage | February 2012 1. 3 Market Potential

The overall nutrient ingestion is forecast to turn by a compound one-year growing rate ( CAGR ) of 9. 1 per centum to 2015. sevens Modern retail. such as hypermarkets are projected to increase in Numberss as urban Centres expand and demand additions for convenience and added-value merchandises ( i. e. rice and noodle ready-meals ) . However. most consumers in Indonesia remain monetary value sensitive and private label will be a popular option as it is perceived as good value instead than cheap. vii The sale of alcoholic drinks is expected to worsen with a CAGR of 2. 3 per centum during 2010-2015. However. vino is forecast to turn with a CAGR of 1.

4 per centum during 20102015 as vino is perceived to be a healthier option than other alcoholic drinks such as beer. V Indonesia has a monolithic young person population of around 40. 9 million. aged between 15 and 24. This age group tends to be more westernised compared to the older population and is projected to drive demand for mass market merchandises such as confectionary goods. seven There are chances for merchandises targeted to better the status of specific wellness jobs. These merchandises include Ca fortified milk to forestall osteoporosis. dairy milk for nursing female parents. babe nutrient and merchandises for weight and cholesterin decrease.

six 1. 4 Import Trendsvii In 2010. Indonesia imported an estimated US $ 8. 1 billion. a growing of 25 per centum from 2009. Indonesia is comparatively resilient to planetary trade volatility but reliant on dairy and domestic fowl imports to run into demand. Dutch east indies: Food and Beverage Trade in million USD 2009 Exports Imports Balance 18. 756 6. 476 12. 280 2010e 24. 765 8. 120 16. 645 2011f 30. 406 9. 573 20. 833 2012f 36. 517 11. 233 25. 284 2013f 43. 492 13. 172 30. 320 2014f 52. 167 15. 598 36. 563 2015f 62. 034 18. 448 43. 585 Beginning: Business Monitor International ( NB: 2010 estimation ; 2011-2015 prognosiss )

7/ Exporter Guide | Indonesia | Food and Beverage | February 2012 1. 5 Key Players in the Marketvii Food and drinks Nestle Indonesia had the highest market portion with gross revenues of US $ 23. 2 billion in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. Nestle has a market taking place in the dairy sector and in its instant noodle class. operates a 50-50 joint venture with Indofood Sukses Makmur. One of Indonesia’s key participants in alcoholic drinks is Multi Bintang with 414 employees and US $ 209. 5 million in gross revenues in 2010.

Dutch east indies: Cardinal Players in the nutrient and drink market Company Nestle Indonesia Indofood Sukses akmur Terbuka Unilever Indonesia PT Charoen Pokphand Indonesia Mayora Indah Tbk Sari Husada PT Malindo Feedmill Tbk PT Siantar Top Tiga Pilar Sejahtera Food Sub-sector confectionery and dairy assorted nutrient dairy and tea meat and Fish confectionery expression and babe nutrient assorted nutrient Snack nutrient Snack nutrient and instant noodles Gross saless ( US $ manganese ) 23. 238** 4. 493 2. 303 1. 764 845 317e 238 89 83 Yearending Dec-10 Dec-10 Dec-10 Dec-10 Dec-10 2010 Dec-10 Dec-10 Dec-09 No.

Of employees 1. 232 64. 200 3. 308 7. 095 4. 407 902 2. 144 4. 292 1. 925 Year Established 1971 1990 1933 1972 1977 1954 na 1970 na Beginning: Company Investor Relations. BMI ( NB: vitamin E = estimation. na = non available. **Includes Papua New Guinea ) Mass Grocery Retail Hero Supermarket Tbk had the largest gross revenues within the mass food market retail sector with US $ 8. 97 billion in 2010. Hero has a wide scope of shop formats and offers lower value merchandises while Carrefour. the biggest foreign retail merchant in Indonesia. dominates the upper terminal of the market.

8/Exporter Guide | Indonesia | Food and Beverage | February 2012 Key Players in Indonesia’s Mass Grocery Retail Sector. 2011 Parent Company PT Hero Supermark et Tbk PT Sumber Alfaria Trijaya Tbk PT Matahari Putra Prima Tbk Country of Origin Indonesia / Hong Kong Gross saless. US $ mn 8. 971 Fiscal twelvemonth 2010 Brand Hero Giant StarMart Indonesia 1. 645 2010 Alfamart Alfa Minimart Foodmart Hypermart Cut Price PT Carrefour Indonesia PT Makro Indonesia ** PT Ramayana Lestari Sentosa Tbk PT Indomaret Prismatama PT Lion Superindo PT Alfa Retailindo Tbk France / Indonesia Netherlands Indonesia.

Indonesia Belgium / Indonesia Indonesia 1. 570*** 656e 639 500e 431* 187 2010 2010 2009 2010 2010 2010 Carrefour Makro Ramayana Indomaret Super Indo Alfa Alfa Grosir Gelael Format Supermarket Hypermarket Convenience Store Supermarket Convenience Store Supermarket Hypermarket Discount Store Hypermarket Supermarket Cash & A ; Carry Supermarket Convenience Store Supermarket Supermarket Supermarket Supermarket No of mercantile establishments 120 38 125 4812 Indonesia 1. 615 2009 25 52 9 63 16 20 104 5. 174 74 35 8 11.

Beginning: Company Investor Relations. BMI ( NB: vitamin E = estimation. *Based on Delhaize Group Rest of World Gross saless. ** South Korea’s Lotte acquired Makro in October 2008. ***Based on Carrefour’sIndonesia gross revenues. ? Includes franchised. independent shops ) 1. 6 Regulative Information provided in this subdivision is for mention merely. When negociating supply contracts and before get downing existent export. companies are advised to confer with closely with their importer or distributer. Duties and duties Under AANZFTA there will be tariff free entree to more than 90 per centum of New Zealand goods by 2015. and the bulk of these are nutrient and drink merchandises.

9/ Exporter Guide | Indonesia | Food and Beverage | February 2012 Alcoholic drinks in Indonesia including vino are purely regulated due to the Muslim Law. Wines are capable to 10 per centum value added revenue enhancement ( VAT ) . import revenue enhancement of 150 per centum and income revenue enhancement of 25 per centum. Category A B C Classification Alcoholic drink with 1-5 per centum ethyl alcohol content Alcoholic drink with 5-20 per centum ethyl alcohol content Alcoholic drink with 20-55 per centum ethyl alcohol content Import responsibility USD 1. 57 / liter IDR 14. 000 / liter USD 6. 18 / liter IDR 55. 000 / liter USD 14.

00 / liter IDR 125. 000 / litre Excise Tax USD 1. 25 / liter IDR 11. 000 / liter USD 4. 5 / liter IDR 40. 000 / liter USD 14. 61 / liter IDR130. 000 / liter For more information. see the Directorate General of Customs & A ; Excise at World Wide Web. beacukai. travel. Idaho or the AANZFTA at World Wide Web. Association of Southeast Asian Nations. fta. govt. nz. Licensing and enrollment demands Prior to importing of nutrient. companies must follow a enrollment procedure which involves a fee of Rp 150. 000-3. 000. 000 ( about NZ $ 17-345 ) .

The paperss needed to register include: ? ? ? ? ? a missive that guarantees safety. quality. nutrition and labelling an mandate missive from the maker wellness certification or certification of free sale issued by authorized deputy from state of origin an audit study of distribution installations from NADFC ( National Agency of Drugs and Food Control ) provincial office. transcript of enrollment blessing missive from the NZ company’s importer For more information on licensing and enrollment. visit National Agency of Drug and Food Control at World Wide Web. pom. travel. Idaho Labeling demands.

All imported nutrient and drinks need to be labelled in Indonesian linguistic communication and must incorporate: ? ? ? ? trade name name name of merchandise ( type of nutrient ) list of ingredients net weight or net content or drained weight ( if applicable ) 10/ Exporter Guide | Indonesia | Food and Beverage | .

February 2012? ? ? name and reference of parties that produce or import the merchandises into Indonesia enrollment figure day of the month. month and twelvemonth of minimal lastingness For more information on labelling. see the National Agency of Drug and Food Control at World Wide Web. pom. travel. Idaho. Quotas New Zealand vino exports are capable to Indonesia’s import quotas. The Indonesian authorities increased the import quota for vino to 225. 000 instances in 2009. from 80. 000 instances in 2008.

The figure of instances of vino imported in 2008 and 2009 were 77. 485 and 191. 953 instances severally. Mistake! Bookmark non defined. Indonesia has besides late imposed beef quotas which are being reviewed on a regular basis. Halal Halal enfranchisement in Indonesia is required for all nutrient derived from animate being merchandises. and recommended for companies whose merchandises are aiming the mass retail market. Exporters are advised to look into this closely with their importers or distributers in Indonesia. The Federation of Islamic Associations of New Zealand ( FIANZ ) is recognised by the Indonesian Ulama Council ( MUI ) for attesting merchandises in New Zealand.

They can be contacted at [ electronic mail protected ]co. nz. For more information on the abroad market entree demands ( including halal demands ) . see the New Zealand Food Safety Authority at World Wide Web. foodsafety. govt. nz For more information on halal. see the MUI at World Wide Web. halalmui. org 1. 7 Sustainabilityviii The Indonesian Government encourages companies to utilize sustainable packaging and reclaimable stuffs through revenue enhancement inducements and an awards system. The authorities programs to hike the environmentally friendly packaging through Industrial Regulations in Indonesia ( RUU Perindustrian ) .

Options to plastic packaging such as vegetable stuff or bio-plastic packaging have been welcomed by the market. Bio-plastic is made from biotic stuffs ( i. e. maize. manioc or micro-biota ) and the stuff is easier to break up. A national H2O company. PT Aqua Golden Mississippi. is presently developing a H2O bottle from vegetable stuff. The Indonesian Nanotechnology Society is researching a dilutant plastic bottle which can be decomposed in 4 to 8 hebdomads. 11/ Exporter Guide | Indonesia | Food and Beverage | February 2012 2 MARKET ENTRY AND DEVELOPMENT 2.

1 Market Entry Strategies Indonesia is a monetary value sensitive market. but with the growing of the new coevals of in-between and high income consumers. the quality of merchandises is of greater importance. Branded and high quality nutrient and drink merchandises are in demand. The in-between high income section is paying more attending to healthy merchandises as the new coevals becomes more wellness witting. Indonesian consumers prefer internationally well-known trade names and imported merchandises. peculiarly for their kids. In 2010. the authorities approved a figure of import licenses for alcoholic drinks.

There were antecedently merely 2 companies with import licenses but now more than 20 companies have secured a license. To get an import license. a company needs to hold at least 20 trade names in its portfolio. It is recommended that New Zealand nutrient and drink merchandises focus on Jakarta ( with a population of 9. 6 million ) . Surabaya ( 4 million ) and Bali ( 4 million ) . Jakarta and Surabaya are large markets in their ain right but are besides distribution hubs to the E and western parts of Indonesia. Bali is a popular touristry finish and there is a demand for quality merchandises from hotels and eating houses.

2. 2 Points of Differentiation New Zealand is known in Indonesia as a manufacturer of fresh. clean. high quality and healthy merchandises. However. the market holds little knowledge about the scope of merchandises New Zealand sells. New Zealand companies need to continuously advance the overall New Zealand image for the benefit of their merchandises. 2. 3 Long Term Strategic Issues for Exporters to See Recently a figure of new ordinances were introduced. which are aimed at protecting local manufacturers of horticultural. agricultural and dairy merchandises.

Political issues and corruptness are still a major issue in making concern in Indonesia. All imported nutrient and drink merchandises must be registered by Indonesia’s National Agency for Food and Drugs Control ( BPOM ) . New Zealand nutrient and drink exporters are advised to look into with their Indonesian clients or spouses what the exact procedure is. The specified clip bound for BPOM to publish enrollment is 45 working yearss. but in the yesteryear it has taken 6-12 months. 12/ Exporter Guide | Indonesia | Food and Beverage | February 2012 2. 4 Distribution Channels.

The best market incursion scheme is to name a local importer who has an established web across Indonesia. This will enable New Zealand concerns to entree the retail market and besides the HORECA ( hotel. eating house and providing ) markets. Importers will set about the merchandise enrollment on behalf of New Zealand companies. New Zealand companies must supply the necessary certification including a missive of assignment for the Indonesian importer. 2. 5 Pricing New Zealand merchandises face stiff competition from other imported merchandises. peculiarly merchandises from Asiatic states.

With the right pricing and merchandise placement schemes. Indonesian consumers are willing to pay for premium merchandises. Mark-ups for imported merchandises will include: ? ? ? import agent fees custom responsibilities value added revenue enhancement ( VAT ) of 5-10 per centum 13/ Exporter Guide | Indonesia | Food and Beverage | February 2012 2.

MARKET RESOURCES AND CONTACTS ASSOCIATIONS /ORGANISATION ASEAN New Zealand Combined Business Council Halal Indonesia The Federation of Islamic Associations of New Zealand ( FIANZ ) WEBLINK World Wide Web. Association of Southeast Asian Nations. org. nz World Wide Web. halalindonesia. org/ World Wide Web. fianz. co. nz/index. php Indonesia National Agency of Drug and Food Control World Wide Web. pom. travel. id ASEAN Australia New Zealand Free Trade Agreement Guide Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia Directorate General of Customs & A ; Excise.

Trade EVENTS InterFood Indonesia Fish and Seafood Indonesia Agri Indo Jakarta Fashion & A ; Food Festival OTHER NZTE PUBLICATIONS Indonesia Country Brief Wine Market in Southeast Asia Food and drink in the hotel. eating house and establishments market in Southeast Asia World Wide Web. Association of Southeast Asian Nations. fta. govt. nz World Wide Web. depkes. travel. id/en/ World Wide Web. beacukai. travel. Idaho WEBLINK World Wide Web. interfood-indonesia. com World Wide Web. fisheryandseafoodexpo. com World Wide Web. agri-indo. com World Wide Web. jfff. info WEBLINK World Wide Web. nzte. govt. nz World Wide Web. nzte. govt. nz /www. nzte. govt. nz Disclaimer:

This publication is provided to you as a free service and is intended to flag to you market chances and possibilities. Use of and trust on the information/products/technology/concepts discussed in this publication. and the suitableness of these for your concern is wholly at your ain hazard. You are advised to transport out your ain independent appraisal of this chance. The information in this publication is general ; it was prepared by New Zealand Trade and Enterprise ( NZTE ) from publically available and/or subscription database beginnings.

NZTE ; its officers. employees and agents accept no liability for any mistakes or skips or any opinion/s expressed. and no duty is accepted with regard to the standing of any firm/s. company/ies or individual/s mentioned. New Zealand Trade and Enterprise is non responsible for any inauspicious effects originating out of such usage. You release New Zealand Trade and Enterprise from all claims originating from this publication. New Zealand Trade and Enterprise militias the right to recycle any general market information contained in its studies. one ii three four V six seven eight Euromonitor International. 26 August 2011.

Dutch east indies: State Profile APNZ. 15 November 2011. Indonesia to fall in regional FTA. The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved from World Wide Web. nzherald. co. nz Euromonitor International. 9 August 2011. Consumer Food Service in Indonesia. Euromonitor International. 2011. Market sizes. Indonesia Euromonitor International. February 2011. Alcoholic Drinks – Indonesia Euromonitor International. November 2010. Packaged nutrient – Indonesia Business Monitor International. August 2011. Indonesia Food & A ; Drink Report Q4 2011. Euromonitor International. April 2011. Boxing – Indonesia 14/ Exporter Guide | Indonesia | Food and Beverage | February 2012.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *