Secondary teaching method

Teaching method is the survey of the methods and activities of instruction ( Cambridge online lexicon ) . In this Assignment I will be looking at how we can associate teaching method in learning Applied ICT in Secondary schools to the theories of larning which are the foundations of how we teach and learn.

The Humanistic position to acquisition is that of ‘natural desire ‘ , where acquisition is student lead and personalized, and the function of the instructor is thought of as more of a facilitator. One of the cardinal premises of this humanistic position harmonizing to Huitt ( 2001 ) is that people act with intentionality and values. Humanists believe that you should look at the person as a whole, and that it is of import to see how an person learns throughout their life as they grow and develop.

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Smith ( 1999 ) discusses the basic concern for the human potency of growing. In the schoolroom environment pupils are non needfully come ining the schoolroom with the purpose of larning. As pupils have chiefly decided on taking to larn and prosecute in the subject of ICT within the 14-19 course of study, this suggests that at some phase the pupils did hold a natural desire to take up the topic in order to prosecute in the acquisition and hopefully come on onto makings. The existent desire of pupils on a twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours degree may be greatly different to the desire they have to larn over a longer period of clip.

Abraham Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of demands argues that people aim to run into basic demands first, and so they seek to run into in turn higher demands in the signifier of a hierarchy until they reach self-actualization, or self fulfillment. Behavior and acquisition is motivated by an persons desire for personal growing an the demand to go all the things that a individual is capable of going ( Maslow,1970 ) .

Although non straight linked to the instruction of ICT within the schoolroom it is really important that pupils are likely to hold other demands other than that of larning in order to accomplish their true potency. I have noted on several occasions that pupils have non been concentrating during the beginning of lessons, even when the starting motor exercising has been accessed by the bulk of pupils. When these pupils were questioned, particularly during forenoon periods, the reply given was that they could non concentrate and they were hungry, which coincides with the lowest degree on the hierarchy.

Maslow foremost introduced his construct of hierarchy which was published in his 1943 paper “ A Theory of Human Motivation ” , which was closely followed by his book “ Motivation and Personality ” . There are many facets of this theory that can be linked to the person ‘s motive either within the parturiencies of a lesson, or over a period of clip. These hierarchies are closely linked to the construct of ECM which is now high on the authorities ‘s docket for schools.

There is nevertheless a few exclusions that often occur within this theoretical account, such as persons experiencing safe and secure in the schoolroom environment when they have non had breakfast. In the theoretical account it is merely possible to seek the safety of a secure environment when the physiological demands are met, therefore I would state another issue with this theoretical account is that there are no clip limits set, or even that an person could perchance drop to the underside of the hierarchy within a lesson if a student has forgotten a jammed tiffin or their dinner money, they may get down to merely believe of where they are traveling to acquire their following repast.

Closely linked with the humanistic attack theoretician David A. Kolb believes “ acquisition is the procedure whereby cognition is created through the transmutation of experience ” Kolb, ( 1984, p. 38 ) . The theory is that of a rhythm in four phases, where you are able to get down at any one phase, but so each phase must follow in sequence:

  • “ Make ” or Concrete experience
  • “ OBSERVE ” or Brooding observation
  • “ Think ” or Abstract conceptualisation
  • “ Plan ” or Active experimentation

Along with the larning rhythm Kolb besides offers a manner into understanding the single people ‘s acquisition manners.

Within Applied ICT I found that it was really helpful taking pupils out of the schoolroom and into organisations where they could ‘observe ‘ ICT working. Rather than learn pupils how and why the ICT was being used I found it more productive to allow the pupils experience the ICT working in the normal environment of an organisation before inquiring the pupils to organize sentiments on what the engineering may be used for.

In the instance of detecting a working eating house pupils were able to see staff taking orders and so traveling back to the order desk to put the orders. Once observed the pupils reflected on why the staff were continually traveling towards the same computing machine terminus after taking orders, organizing an sentiment as to why they must be inputting the information into an ordination system for the kitchens. The pupils besides noted that it would besides be possible to utilize the same ordination system to associate the drinks orders to the saloon staff, all of this was so backed up by really taking an order themselves and come ining it into the order database, where they gained a concrete experience.

Looking at how the pupils really learned Kolb ‘s acquisition manners can get down to go understood. Some pupils found it much easier to understand the usage of engineering by come ining the order, and so reflecting on how this would be utile when watching the servers ( diverging ) . Assimilator scholars found that it was easier to gestate how the ordination would take topographic point before watching the order pickings and so reflecting on how this was… …

Learners who had conceptualized the order pickings, but had non truly understood how and why the ordination worked through observations started understand more when they started to believe how it would work if they had really witnessed a drinks order being processed ( meeting ) . Finally the scholars who were ‘Accommodating ‘ merely understood truly what was traveling on when they non merely entered the orders themselves, but started to believe about which other types of orders could be placed on the system.

The whole work of Kolb underpins the course of study and how it may be delivered in schools today.

The theory of multiple intelligences was developed by Howard Gardiner in 1983. He suggests that persons possess a figure of different independent intelligences ( at least seven ) , and that these can be acquired at different degrees. Gardner besides suggests that if persons have an ability to larn in a certain mode, they should be encouraged to develop their acquisition utilizing this endowment.

Gardner material

During my instruction, the thought of pupils being able to develop their abilities to larn focussed me on the single pupils and how to include and develop all pupils within my category, which links back to the Every Child Matters docket and how to develop the cognition of all persons within the schoolroom. Although concentrating on certain facets of Gardner ‘s intelligences, such as the verbal-linguistic and logical-mathematical abilities of pupils within the schoolroom I besides need to see the overall interpersonal and intrapersonal abilities of pupils more to supply a more rounded and balanced course of study.

There is a demand to provide for pupils at different abilities, whether within the schoolroom, the twelvemonth group, or the cardinal phases. Depending on how pupils are grouped should impact the manner in which lessons are planned and delivered. Although some of the thoughts behind Garners theory are used within the schoolroom the overall footing of the theory is non adequate to alter the manner in which persons are grouped, as I believe there are stronger influences that bind persons larning together, such as those described by Maslow.

The intent of this essay is to show an apprehension of student acquisition in relation to Learning Theories and set up links between effectual student acquisition and instruction schemes.

This essay has four ends. The first end is to summarize the chief Learning Theories. The 2nd end draws on recent observations and a treatment of how I have seen these theories used in my stage 2 arrangements at Xxxxxxxx. The 3rd end demonstrates how I would take into history Learning Theories in lesson planning to lend to effectual acquisition by discoursing a lesson on Net income and Loss and a lesson on Budgeting with their associated programs and ratings. With mention to the QTS criterions the 4th end will cite my work to the QTS criterions.

This essay will associate the chief Learning Theories to both my observations at Xxxxxxxx and my ain pattern. It is hoped that cognizing the chief theoreticians, what the chief points are and how this translates into utile learning schemes will assist me go a better instructor.

It is hoped that my instruction accomplishments will develop as a consequence of this essays application of theory to pattern, rating and contemplation.


  • Gardner, H. ( 1983 ) . Frames of Mind. New York: Basic Books.
  • Huitt, W. ( 2001 ) . Humanitarianism and unfastened instruction. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved January 3, 2010, from the URL: hypertext transfer protocol: //
  • Kolb, D.A. ( 1984 ) Experiential Learning: experience as the beginning of larning and development New Jersey: Prentice-Hall
  • Maslow, A.H. ( 1943 ) . A Theory of Human Motivation, Psychological Review 50, 370-96
  • Maslow, A. H. ( 1943 ) . Motivation and personality. New York: Harper.
  • Maslow, A. H. ( 1970 ) . Motivation and Personality, 2nd. Ed. , New York, Harper & A ; Row.
  • Smith, M. K. ( 1999 ) ‘The humanistic to larning ‘ , the encyclopaedia of informal instruction Retrieved January 3, 2010, from the Uniform resource locator:

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