Organizational behavior is defined to follow its beginnings to the late 1940 ‘s when research workers in psychological science, sociology, political scientific discipline, economic sciences, and other societal scientific discipline sought to develop a comprehensive organic structure of organizational research ( Greiner,1979 ) . Whereas harmonizing to George and Jones ( 1996 ) , “ Organizational Behaviour is the survey of the many factors that have an impact on how single and groups respond to and move in organisations and how organisation pull off their environments ” .
This study shows the formation of group, behavior of an person in that group, advantages and disadvantages of single in an group and phases of formation of the group, The factors like motive, equal force per unit area, intra struggle, group norms which are psychological rewarding every bit good as possible demanding for an person while working in a group with certain illustrations from diary and ego illustrations.
Definition of group: Groups are described in many ways such as any figure of people who interact with one another, who psychologically cognizant of one another and who perceive themselves in group ( Schein, 1988 ) .Whereas work group, is a portion of group which is described as a aggregation of people who portion their work in signifier of interaction, ability to move in a unitary mode, in group consciousness etc. ( Schein, 1988 ) . Apart from group, squad work is about similar to group activities, Harmonizing Crainer ( 1998 ) , “ Team occur when a figure of people have a common end and acknowledge that their, personal success is dependent on the success of others ” . There are some differences in group and teamwork based on size, choice, leading, perceptual experience, manner, and spirit.
Advantages of group for single:
There are advantages for an person in the group which can psychological rewarding every bit good as potentially demanding for an single such as undertaking public presentation where undertaking given to every person to performed with expeditiously and decently while bring forthing new thoughts originative solutions to complex job, high quality for intents of affair and co-ordination, greater suitableness as vehicles for alteration, and to enable the socialisation and preparation of new members ( Chell, 1993 ) . From my personal experience while working in a company, our groups chief motivation was to advance a selling merchandise. To execute the undertaking expeditiously I had good dealingss with senior who were experience from whom I learned good communicating accomplishments, shared the cognition, and besides the experience. As I was a new united member in a group they treated me as usual member who is at that place from longer period of clip. And if we had any critical job related to work was solved jointly.
Disadvantages of group for Individual:
The disadvantages of group for an person are struggle between members, senior status factor within group, dominated by one or two people, inactive member in a group. To back up all this points I have an illustration we five friends stays together in a house where our work is divided every bit. If there is a struggle between two members in a group it will impact each and every individual in a group. Similarly if there is no honestness within the group may originate to struggles, other than that senior status factor like age difference where senior may rule the junior while working in a group. If the spouse is non active in making his given work may raise tonss of job within the group which may besides detain the public presentation of undertaking for e.g. if there is no lead dance for a group so how come a dance be performed.
Reason behind Joining the Group by an person:
The ground behind fall ining the group is to accomplish the psychological wagess every bit good as possible demand from the employees or other top directors in the administration. There is a simple account that harmonizing to Myers ( 1994 ) “ where strong cogent evidence on the footing that work forces and adult females seek to fall in others as a natural portion of life and that they enjoy the socialising consequence of being with other human being ” . Harmonizing to Katzenbach and Smith ( 1993 ) declares that “ A squad is a little figure of people with complementary accomplishments who are committed to a common intent, public presentation ends, and attack for which they hold themselves accountable ” . Whereas Harmonizing to Heller ( 1997 ) “ Working in groups is an first-class manner of constructing the effectual interpersonal relationships that administrations need. The basic ground behind fall ining the group for an person is security, undertaking accomplishment, societal demands and power. Security means an employee ‘s when they come together with stronger feeling and more confident whereas corporate bargaining with employers can bespeak the uneven relationship between employer and employee for e.g. in a group there is a group leader and an employee where thoughts are collected together but the differences are needed to be maintained. Whereas in undertaking accomplishment, without group certain undertakings can non be performed where corporate ability and accomplishments are more efficient so the single public presentation for quality of end product. Social demand agencies and add-on in a group give single position and self belief whereas societal relationship besides helps to better communications and besides taking to increased occupation satisfaction. In the power where the force per unit area of dialogue can be used more successfully if there are big Numberss of members in group who support actively ( Mullins, 1996 ) .
Types of groups:
There are two types of groups which are formal and informal group where as formal group is defines as a planned system of concerted attempt in which each participant has a recognized function to play and responsibilities or undertakings to execute ( Katz, 1965 ) . There are assorted degrees that differentiate the bench worker from the skilled machinist, from top to bottom of the section and so on. These degree are good defined and besides the formal orders, instructions and compensations are informed to them ( Hussein, 1989 ) . It besides include systems, policies, regulations and ordinances that express what the dealingss of one individual to another are supposed to be in order efficaciously to accomplish the undertaking of proficient production ( Roethlisberger and Dickson, 1941 ) . Harmonizing to Palazzolo ( 1981 ) , “ a aggregation of single whose common work experience consequence in the development of a system of interpersonal dealingss beyond those expected of them by values of their employment ” . Such type of group is characterized by friendliness and common involvement where as group ends which are non required for the efficient public presentation of their expected work activity. It is besides a flow of working in puting s outside the on the job environment. This may besides develop relationships of a primary nature which relationships last longer than their common work experience ( Hussein, 1989 ) . For e.g. in formal group, when I was an employee for an company where our selected group usage to follow regulations and ordinance like communicate should be done purely related to work, non to act in causal manner etc. whereas if I had any job related my work so I use to straight accept to the my leader instead than other employees. Due to which that work was based as an single thought. Whereas an illustration of an informal group, during an event administration held in our university named ‘Spectrum- The Ray of Light ‘ , I was a member of that event group, if I had certain job related to my work I use to experience free to inquire for a aid from our co-members and leaders which motivated me a batch which automatically which created an excess attempts in my work and completed it expeditiously. And which besides helped me to derive the cognition from other members of the group. It besides made me to go socialised between the people due to which it developed my communicating accomplishments, there was better apprehension, and behaved in really friendly manner so that if there is any job can be discussed with everyone. So harmonizing to my personal experience informal groups are better than formal groups. Apart from that there is most of import advantage of informal groups. Sometimes informal groups is besides honoring for an person like if an person is holding a good relation with top director in the group can assist him to acquire promoted to higher station or vice-versa, or increase in higher salary etc. which is an possible demanding for an person in group.
Phases of Group Development:
Under this subdivision describes some general phases through which groups evolve and points out the consecutive development procedure involved such as forming, ramping, norming, executing and recessing ( Bettenhausen, 1991 ) . Harmonizing to Tuckman ( 1965 ) the initial phase of group starts with organizing which means coming together and begins to organize its ain on the job relationships For e.g. when the group is formed the members of the group has to keep good communicating relation with other members in the group which helps them to accomplish the end expeditiously. After organizing there is 2nd phase which is ramping which means assorted members in the groups works together to settle any dissensions and put precedences for e.g. where he/she has to accomplish some importance in a group while keeping relationship with other members in a group instead than making the struggles. The following phase is norming which is characterized by co-operation and coaction for e.g. members of the group coming together and seek to screen out the job by suggestion of thought from different members in the group and besides to keep good relation with the members. After norming, executing where the group is to the full functional for e.g. the construction of the group is set and the functions, attempts, energies and committedness on executing which is accepted. The concluding phase is recessing phase involves the expiration of group activities. After researching through phases it plays an of import function in single of group where it is psychological honoring such as developing good communicating, organizing relation with members and developing the cognition of thought.
Behaviour of an person in a group:
B=f ( P, E ) , Behaviour is a map of interaction between individual ( P ) and environmental factors ( E ) ( Lewin, 1951 ) . This theory ‘s propose indicate that single behavior should be examined both from the organizational and the person ‘s position. There are variable impacting the behavior of an person in a group or administration personality, perceptual experience, values, abilities for unconditioned factors. The other factor that is environmental factors which include administration factor, household, peer-group force per unit areas and personal life experiences. To back up this theory there is an illustration the show called Big Brother where 10 to twelve contestants portion a house over several hebdomad and their behavior is observed through a battery of concealed cameras. Where every hebdomad they were give a undertaking to be performed and if it is non fulfilled so there was an riddance factor at terminal of that hebdomad. From which the behavior of single is tried physical as good mentally. And if the work performed by any member of the house there were rewarded with assorted inducements like cocoa, to phone at their original house which motivate them more to execute their work more expeditiously which is psychological rewarding for single. There are two chief methods of analysing the behavior of single in group state of affairss are sociometry and interaction analysis.
The Key Aspects that working in a group can be both psychologically awarding every bit good as demanding for the person:
Motivation: It is defined by Mitchell ( 1982 ) , there are some features from which 1 that underlie the definition of motive which are as follows,
“ Motivation as an person phenomenon where every individual is alone and the major theories of motive allow for this singularity to be demonstrated in one manner or another ” .
There are besides certain theories of motive like Maslow ‘s hierarchy, Alderfer ‘s modified demand hierarchy theoretical account, Herzberg ‘s two factor theory which plays an of import function for actuating the person in the group.
Maslow ‘s hierarchy theory which indicate that phases which is for the development of single and motive like physiological demands, safety demands, societal demands, esteem demands and self-actualization demand. Where if we consider any person so he has to foremost travel through the physiological demands where needs a good wage, better working conditions etc. where as in safety degree an single thinks for occupation security, safe working conditions and company ‘s benefit. As on in societal demand good communicating with the members in the group. And In regard demands where single thinks for a occupation rubric, publicity, wants importance from other employees etc. In last the self-actualization demands which is equal to highest station in an administration like leader where person has to confront disputing occupation, creativeness of thoughts, accomplishment in work. As per myself experience at my work topographic point most of the person are satisfied with their physiological demand and safety demands. Where there are certain people who show their ability to accomplish self- realization as in to go the leader. Using the above theory if an employee operating at the self-actualization degree and fails to have a challenging occupation which will impact the capablenesss that employee ‘s has and besides would be demotivated. If we see success among Chinese and Indian community is considered chiefly through their support and household or community. Whereas Chinese will normally look for pecuniary wagess like fillip, incentives etc so merely they will give their best attempts if household demands are satisfied. Whereas Indians on other manus will be loyal towards any administration or group that caters for their ain personal well being ( Ahmad, 2001 ) . After comparing this two illustration it shows psychological rewarding for the employees which in bend potentially demanding for the group which a success achieved by employee which assisting the other members in the group.
Sherif ( 1936 ) defined norms as the “ imposts, traditions, regulations, values, manners, and any other standards of behavior which are standardized as a effect of contact with persons ” . There are certain informal regulations that group have adopted to modulate and regulate member ‘s behavior through norms ( Feldman, 1984 ) . Norms are critical social-psychological every bit good as organizational construct that is presented in most treatment of work group behavoiur and organizational effectivity ( Gary, McMahan et.al. 1991 ) . Group norms are of two types like formal and informal. Where in formal group norms there is standard should be maintained like written policies, runing processs, runing manuals, designs, safety notices and similar stuffs ( Cole, 2005 ) For e.g. In a recent instance in featuring universe, the Captain of England Rugby squad sacked by the Rugby football brotherhood senior direction for doing some unadvised public unfavorable judgment of their behavior. After that another squad captain was sought but squad was so united behind the former captain none was prepared either to accept the captainship. So it is of import to acknowledge that, even when originating from official beginnings, all norms are interim steps for procuring the human resources of the administration in the attainment of administration Al ends. Whereas for informal norms which non standardized such as ornament of an office workss or assemblage of group member at tiffin times ( Cole, 2005 ) . Like from this we can state that the public presentation of a single affairs a batch which comes in a signifier of psychological wages for an England captain by the other squad members but non back uping the direction. It is besides possible demanding for the squad as the public presentation of the captain.
Intra Group Conflict: Conflict is work a group is expected from clip to clip, particularly if there is force per unit area to execute the work within the group. Whereas intra group struggle occurs when members of the same group autumn out for e.g. where two different employees in a group have different point of position towards the same occupation given to them ( Ellis and Dick, 2000 ) . Intra group is allows cited as an of import beginning of emphasis for an person at work ( Quick and Quick, 1984 ) . This is fundamentally affected to individual ‘s work as per my personal experience where I was a member of a group and my co-member had a struggle with leader in our group. Due to which it affected his motive factor, tonss of emphasis related to work. Whenever he suggests some thought related to job were ne’er took into consideration by our leader of the group. Due to which he was ne’er psychological rewarded in group and where as his thoughts were ne’er potentially demanding would ne’er be taken into count by the leader. Because leader is one who at last select the thought which is right for the administration.
Peer force per unit area can be influenced positively and can besides be bearable for an person to give his best. Whereas as it can besides hold negative effects. The force per unit area to ‘fit in ‘ with co-members in the group can impact the manner of speaking, dressing, and acting. Peer force per unit area can act upon single to make something which he/she has ne’er done it before.For e.g. I had my personal experience I had a friend who wanted to be accepted in popular crowd so he was thrilled when the group of male childs asked him to fall in their pack. But his felicity turned to cryings when all of a sudden he was forced to make things that did n’t do him experience comfy. Now the group of male childs did n’t indicate a gun to his caput or anything but he felt that if he did n’t went along with them and feign that everything was cool so they had kicked him out of their group for certain. So he got his lingua pierced, started holding a bad attitude and being truly slack about his work. He was feared about losing that group who had given him so much of importance.
To my ain experience of working in a group is more well-organized for an single public presentation who can largely be rewarded psychological and his thoughts may be demanding. Sometimes the jobs are so critical that single is non able to work out whereas in group it is solved jointly without blowing much clip. And if any member is non pro-active towards the work so it can be covered by the staying members which can assist them to execute the work expeditiously. Whereas non in the instance of an person.