Behavior can be referred to as the actions or responses of an person in response to outer or internal stimulations. Psychologists continue to develop conflicting attacks and beliing theories for explicating behavior change. Consequently, some research workers and academicians have come up with different theoretical models and for researching the construct of personal behaviour. One of the countries in psychological science that have elicited contention in psychological research pertains to the analysis of the behaviour of smoking on a interruption from work. As effect, some theoreticians have come up with beliing positions on this peculiar personal behaviour. This paper critically examines the behaviour of a tobacco user on a interruption during work. In making this, the paper keenly examines different attacks on personal theories propagated by Sigmund Freud and B. F. Skinner, a cardinal behaviourist, on personal behaviour. This includes scrutinies of Freudian psychodynamics and unwritten arrested development attack every bit good as Freud ‘s psychic constructions of the Idaho, the self-importance and the superego. Additionally, the paper critically analyses Skinner ‘s operant conditioning theory and behavioural support attack. Furthermore, the paper weighs the strengths and failings of the two theories and examines the most equal theory between the two in explicating the behaviour of a tobacco user on a interruption during work.
Freud ‘s Theory
One of the psychological research workers who have contributed vastly in the survey of personality behaviour is Sigmund Freud. He defined the thrust theory utilizing psychodynamics and unwritten arrested development attacks. Freud ‘s theory extensively and intensively explored the psychic construction ; the Idaho which refers to the instinct-based personality which seeks immediate pleasance. On the other manus, the self-importance connotes the perceptual experiences of an single about ego which antagonizes the Idaho in detaining satisfaction until appropriate clip. The superego on the other manus, refers to single scruples and the application of moral control ( Ryckman, 2004 ) . However, Freud besides came up with another construct of personality behaviour, the anxiousness attack. Freud punctually postulated that anxiousness decrease techniques are fundamentally defence mechanisms. In add-on, Freud explored the construct of the witting, subconscious and unconscious head and by extension how they influence perceptual experiences, feelings and ideas among other things. Freudian rules of satisfaction are really founded on the demand to provide for single demands and wants. However, harmonizing to Freud, the witting head is by far the most important in researching human behaviour. He does unwrap that the unconscious head influences single motive every bit good as inherent aptitudes although we may non be cognizant of it. Further, Yeaton ( 2007 ) in his book, A Critique of the Effectiveness of Applied Behavior Analysis Research states that Freud did set up that all persons act by and large to heighten their personal endurance and extension of ego. Although human existences do want for some demands which in this instance is referred to as wants, it is singular to observe that such wants are translated in a primary procedure.
Application of Freud ‘s theory in smoking
In explicating the behaviour of smoke by a tobacco user during work interruptions, Freud observed that there are existent and powerful unconscious thrusts which induce persons to seek this behavioural satisfaction. Upon this Freud used the construct of psychodynamics to propose that exciting memory may besides actuate persons. Harmonizing to Freud, exciting memory has the capacity to originate or trip a behaviour and by extension motivate it. These memories and the unconscious factors he says make offer the psychic energy which propels the desire for a tobacco user to consciously interrupt from work for smoking. Although persons may interrupt from work and smoke consciously, Freud noted that such behaviour could be provoked unconscious psychic energy hence doing the persons left experiencing high that they are doing instead witting broad picks.
In add-on, Freud besides analyzed childhood behavioural development in analyzing the behaviour of smoking during work interruptions. He did detect that babes are usually engaged in orally fixated behaviours of inordinateness such as feeding, speaking, smoke, seting things into the oral cavity, biting and masticating. Such behaviours are endlessly repeated even at big life with rather curious similar psych and enthusiasm. More outstandingly, Freud established that the dependence observed in tobacco users is fundamentally psychological procedure driven by unconscious arrested development experiences during childhood development. However, there are large spreads in the unwritten arrested development attack and its application in depicting smoking behaviour. A batch of inquiries go unreciprocated here. For case, it has non been scientifically proven that unwritten arrested development and smoke wonts are associated with peculiar childhood developmental experiences. Not all grownup tobacco users for illustration, one time smoked when they were immature. Yet advocates of the Freudian attack of unwritten arrested development argue that this behaviour is exhibited in either weight loss or addition in those persons who quit smoke. And yet farther, despite these accounts, it is still non clearly established that there are associations between these behaviours. It is of import, nevertheless, to observe that if non all so a bulk of grownup tobacco users are most likely to hold been exposed to cigarette or smoking environment one time when they were immature.
It is imperative that Freud ‘s constructs of the Idaho, the self-importance and the superego acquire a noticeable function in analysing personality behaviour. Besides, it is besides deserving observing that the constructs of anxiousness, supplanting every bit good as suppression are every bit relevant and utile in behaviourism ( Michie & A ; Abraham, 2004 ) . Naturally, human existences do seek and welcome pleasance and avoid hurting. As a consequence, smoking during interruptions at work develops from the psychic construction, the Idaho which chiefly forms the crude portion of the personality and behaviour by extension. But since such persons may neglect to smoke at the work topographic point they may non hold immediate satisfaction. Alternatively they by be subjected to condemnation particularly by their co-workers who do non smoke. The deduction therein is that the tobacco user realizes via the witting head that such satisfactions after all may non be granted instantly and worse still, there is a great possibility of having unfavorable judgment.
Ideally, the satisfaction of taking a whiff must be delayed until break clip. This moves us to the Freud ‘s psychic construction of the self-importance. With respect to Freud point of view, the self-importance thrust is founded on the world rule which holds that the coveted satisfaction must be delayed till appropriate clip. Basically, the self-importance thrust determines the rightness of actions and establishes how to fulfill such wants. In our point instance, a tobacco user will make up one’s mind through the existent power of the self-importance to wait until break clip so as to be able to smoke in order to have satisfaction, which Freud will tie in non merely to shooting nicotine into the blood system, but besides societal acceptableness among other wagess since there is greater likeliness that they will meet as many tobacco users at the smoke point, when considered at a greater psychic construction. This could be satisfying adequate.
However, it is besides likely that such a delayed smoke is based on factors that make it inappropriate to smoke during work or in the office. This can be interpreted by usage of the construct of superego which harmonizing to Freud refers to the single reading of moralss, ethical motives every bit good as values. Ideally, a tobacco user ‘s pick of smoke clip and how to make it for case throw outing fume and doing ashes is footed on an single pick and scruples. The tobacco user is motivated to smoke during interruption clip because at this clip there are no inhibiting factors. Likewise, an person may neglect to smoke during working hours in the office because of these less prohibitions or simply that smoking in the office may do a batch of uncomfortableness to colleagues and therefore pull unneeded disapprobation. However, it besides of import to observe that if several tobacco users work in the same office and interruption at the same clip they may frequently be given to smoke together. This harmonizing to Freud is rather honoring as they enjoy societal credence.
Then there is the construct of de-individualization theory based on Freud ‘s attacks. The tobacco user ‘s individuality is substituted by societal individuality and the normal societal attacks are replaced by crowd kineticss. Although the group might consist of non- tobacco users, the point is that the tobacco users seem more at easiness in line with Freud ‘s rule of conformity, internalisation and designation. Non-smokers on the other manus, will know apart such behaviour and contemn the tobacco user at the least.
Skinner ‘s theory:
Fredrick Skinner is a behaviourist. He developed the operant conditioning theory in his theoretical model for extremist behaviourism. Operant conditioning describes stimulations and responses that are controlled by support conditions. Skinner described the associatory acquisition reflecting a eventuality of response and presentation of support ( Neuringer, 2004 ) . In this respect, it has been established that larning by conditioning can happen due to responses on some specific stimulations. This has bean described as mold which is a personal behavioural scrutiny tool. Although test and mistake have been shown to bring on larning even in carnal topics, it is apparent that worlds have the same sort of larning through test and mistake method of acquisition.
Harmonizing to Skinner, behaviourism is an effectual tool in understanding the map of environmental factors and the impact of their effects to an person ( Kirsch et al 2004 ) . More conspicuously, Skinner established that environmental influence is determined to a greater extent by people ‘s behaviour. In this respect, Skinner ‘s attack emphasizes on the observation of single actions and possible effects on a individuals behaviour.
Application of Skinner ‘s theory
For the instance of a worker who smokes during work interruption, it is possible to analyse this sort of behaviour utilizing the Skinners attack on personal behaviour ( Nicholas, 2001 ) . This can be analyzed based on the rules of responding or reacting versus thought. Skinner believes that a behaviour is most likely to be repeated when rewarded and the same behaviour when punished it is most likely to be suppressed. This construct explores in item why persons frequently make irrational actions like smoke and repeatedly do it even when they are witting that it is damaging to their wellness.
Based on Skinner ‘s theory, it is possible for witting and subconscious urges to attest at the same time. This means that a tobacco user may unconsciously or consciously take to smoke and by extension select an appropriate clip for smoke. However, the thought of giving the hereafter for the minute has been described by Skinner as based on instinctual selectivity. This includes an analysis of ignorance of functional consciousness which struggle with biological self- involvements ( Cole, 2008 ) . For case, it is noteworthy that the worker is cognizant that smoke is harmful to the organic structure, yet he or she goes in front to whiff. In line with behavioural alteration techniques, it is imperative that the Skinner ‘s attack presents an analysis of smoking during work interruptions. This is based chiefly on the construct of behaviourism and support schemes. Smoking wagess the tobacco user by supplying comforting and restful feelings. Additionally, smoking peculiarly in a company rewards the tobacco user by supplying societal credence. These are desired properties by the tobacco user. It is due to this that Skinner discovered that penalty was non an effectual manner of doing positive behaviour alteration and wages is alternatively. As such it is of import to take note that penalty is ne’er an effectual manner of detering smoke or interruption from work to smoke behaviour.
However, Skinner ‘s point of view is applicable sing the clip to interrupt for smoking from work. Since smoking during work interruption gives pleasance and is a delayed satisfaction, so it is clear that this is a signifier of support as the tobacco user is non influenced by other events which may deter him from smoking ( Bandura, 2000 ) . In this respect, it is of import to observe based on Skinner ‘s attack on behavioural psychological science ; that the worker interrupting to take a coffin nail during a short interlude may besides be conditioned by the interruption clip ( Nicholas, 2001 ) . When the interruption arrives, an single receives urges that compel him or her to seek satisfactions sometimes even instantly. On that note, it is clear that smoking during interruption is a behaviour that is based on wonts and non needfully on principle, determination or out pick ( Kirsch et al, 2004 ) . It is really a type of conditioning response founded on Skinners attack of personal behaviour. In add-on, the form of the smoke wont with peculiar consideration to interrupt clip, which is limited merely to this peculiar clip during working hours and non in the office is besides based on the construct of support which has been used in researching the inclination for other perennial behaviours ( Nicholas, 2001 ) . Ideally, smoking at this clip gives pleasance and later conditions the person.
Based on the above treatments on smoking during work interruption, it is of the kernel that although the two theories applied gives a clear theoretical model for researching smoking wonts, Skinner ‘s conditioning theoretical account and reinforcement attack provides a simple and straightforward technique. Harmonizing to the behavior alteration theoretical account, it is critical that the inclination to whiff during work interruptions is a learned response. In this respect, the Skinner ‘s theoretical theoretical account is more equal in explicating the behaviour of tobacco users interrupting for coffin nails during work interruption.
The Freudian positions on personal behaviour have an application in researching and analysing the behaviour of smoking during work. Based on the constructs of the Idaho, the self-importance and the superego, it is noteworthy that this wont is based on both witting and unconscious determination devising. However, the Skinners attack on conditioning of personal behaviour gives a believable and equal account of smoking at interruption from work. Most basically, Skinners approach on the wont of interrupting for a coffin nail gives a comprehensive analysis of this personal behaviour based on the construct of operant conditioning and support.
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