Research methodological analysis is an orderly attack and systematic manner to work out a research job. It is used for the aggregation and analysis of informations. The research methodological analysis is planned, scientific and value-neutral. It is a scientific discipline of analyzing how research is to be carried out. Basically, the processs by which research workers go about their work of depicting, foretelling and explicating phenomena are called research methodological analysiss. This chapter provides comprehensive inside informations on how this research has been carried out in footings of research design, informations aggregation method, trying design, informations aggregation techniques, measurement graduated table, fieldwork, and informations analysis.

3.1 Research Design

A research design provides the basic waies or “ recipe ” for transporting out the undertaking. Researcher should choose a design that will supply the needful and relevant information on the research inquiries or hypotheses and will assist research workers finish the occupation most expeditiously. Two attacks can be undertaken, either qualitative or quantitative. In this survey, the quantitative attack is being used.

There's a specialist from your university waiting to help you with that essay.
Tell us what you need to have done now!

order now

The research designs have been grouped into three types. Researchers by and large choose from among exploratory, descriptive or insouciant design.

3.2 Data Collection Methods

Data aggregation is an of import measure in carry oning a research survey. The type and sum of informations to be collected depends upon the research objectives. Data aggregation is informations collected by utilizing postal, electronic mailing, fieldwork, written questionnaire hand-delivered to respondents and personal interview. There are two types of informations collected in this survey which is primary informations for the intent of statistical analysis and secondary informations for the intent of literature reappraisal. By utilizing both informations, it is effectual to accomplish the aims of the research as more dependable consequence could be obtained.

3.2.1 Primary Data

Primary informations aggregation is necessary when a research worker can non happen the informations needed in secondary beginnings. Harmonizing to Zikmund ( 2003 ) , primary informations or quantitative informations are informations gathered and assembled specifically for the undertaking on manus. Therefore, they refer to the original plants of research or natural informations without reading or dictums that represent an official sentiment or place ( Cooper & A ; Schindler, 2001 ) . In this survey, the informations aggregation instrument being used is questionnaire.

Examples of primary informations are observation, questionnaire, personal interview, etc. In this research study, research workers collect informations through questionnaire which are distributed to the respondents. Researchers will so run the statistical analysis trial in order to bring forth findings and study consequences in the undermentioned chapters. This information aggregation method is by and large more expensive and hard to get. However, there is a high dependability and cogency. Harmonizing to air et Al. ( 2003 ) , primary informations are collected for the intent of finishing the current research undertaking. Therefore, the research worker has been involved in every facet of turning the information into cognition. This includes planing the informations aggregation device, roll uping the information, coding it, look intoing it for mistakes and so analysing and construing the information.

Questionnaire is chosen as the primary informations aggregation method to carry on this undertaking, so that information that has been collected is suitably analyzed. A entire figure of 100 questionnaire signifiers were distributed to the specific respondents. We had distributed those questionnaires to the lectors in Univeristy Tunku Abdul Rahman. The questionnaires were distributed from 30 June 2010 to 1 June 2010. Questionnaire Design

Questionnaire is chosen as the primary informations aggregation method to carry on this undertaking. The questionnaire is designed based on the hypothesis formed in old chapter. Each independent variable inquiries were designed harmonizing to the countries found in literature reappraisal. It is highly of import that questionnaire has to be apprehensible and free of prejudice. Mindful reappraisal and testing is necessary to weed out minor errors that can do great alterations in significance and reading. If these standards are met, the questionnaire can go a utile and cost-saving informations aggregation method.

The questionnaire consisted of closed-ended inquiries. Close-ended inquiries allow the respondents to take their reply from a list of option provided and to do speedy determinations. It besides helps the research workers to code the informations easy. The research questionnaire was divided into three sections- Section A, Section B and Section C.

Section A is by and large about roll uping the respondent ‘s demographic information such as gender, age, faith, instruction degree, income per month etc. There are a sum of seven inquiries under this subdivision. Meanwhile, Section B consists of inquiries about the Big Five personality factors impacting the occupation public presentation. The inquiries under this subdivision are tested on independent variables, which are Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to see, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. It consists of 50 inquiries which divided into 5 parts. Each portion has ten inquiries severally. Under this subdivision, research workers used 5-point Likert graduated table to ease respondents in choosing reply which is closest to their personal point of views. The Likert Scale is an ordered, unidimensional graduated table from which respondents choose one option that best aligns with their position ( Likert, 1932 ) . Likert graduated table is the most suited to be used to entree the cogency and dependability of the research. Each point on the graduated table represents the strength of the respondent ‘s feelings ( Hair, et. al. , 2007 ) . The responses are runing from 1 ( strongly disagree ) to 5 ( strongly agree ) . Section C consists of inquiries to find whether Large Five personality affect occupation public presentation. There are 15 inquiries under this subdivision.

3.2.2 Secondary Data

Secondary informations, or historical informations, are informations antecedently collected and assembled for some undertaking other than the 1 on manus ( Zikmund, 2003 ) . Harmonizing to Hair et Al. ( 2003 ) , secondary informations are informations that have been collected for some other research intent. For this research, secondary informations were used particularly on the portion of literature reappraisal. Besides that, secondary information is besides needed to explicate the questionnaire. Majority of secondary informations was accessed from on-line faculty member ‘s database such as EMERALD, PRO-QUEST, Directory of Open Access Journals, and UNITAR e-journals. Furthermore, in the procedure of roll uping information, hunt engine such as GOOGLE and YAHOO played a really of import function.

In add-on, research workers besides gather informations from diaries, articles and mention books that are available in UTAR library. The two cardinal advantages of secondary informations are salvaging money and salvaging clip ( Hair et al. , 2003 ) . Besides, it besides has provided a package of information in the literature reappraisal and it serves as a utile guideline. With these secondary informations, research workers are able to analyze several other research workers ‘ determination and place the tendencies of the subject. It is utile to back up this research undertaking.

3.3 Sampling Design

Sampling design is portion of the basic concern research procedure. Harmonizing to Hair et Al. ( 2007 ) , a sample is a representative of the population being drawn. It is a comparatively little subset of the population. Besides, it is besides a procedure of choosing a sufficient figure of elements from the population ( Sekaran, 2003 ) . Since it is by and large impossible to analyze an full population ( every person in a state, all college pupils, every geographic country etc. ) , research workers typically rely on trying to get a subdivision of the population to execute an experiment or experimental survey.

There are several compelling ground for sampling, including ( 1 ) lower costs, ( 2 ) greater truth of consequences, ( 3 ) greater velocity of informations aggregation and ( 4 ) handiness of population elements ( Cooper & A ; Schindler, 2006 ) . Target population refers to the complete group or elements relevant to the research undertaking. The mark population determined for this research survey is all lectors in UTARs. Researchers would hold a sample size of 100 respondents to take part in this study. The respondents are from University Tunku Abdul Rahman in Kampar.

3.3.1 Sampling method

got 2 = & gt ; chance sampling or non-probability sampling

3.3.2 Target population

Target population is the complete group of specific population component relevant to the research undertaking. They are relevant because they possess the information the research undertaking is designed to roll up ( Hair et al. , 2003 ) . The mark population determined for this research is all lectors in private higher instruction establishments. The samples or respondents from the mark population are located within Malaysia.

3.3.3 Sample Size

Sample size refers to the figure of elements to be included in the research. The of import factors that need to be considered in finding the sample size are the importance of the determination, the nature of the research, the figure of factors, the nature of the analysis, sample size used in similar surveies and resources restraints. We found that a sample size of about 100 would be sufficient and appropriate to give an accurate and consistent consequence due to be and clip restraints.

3.4 Data Collection Techniques

Data aggregation techniques allow research workers to consistently roll up information about the objects of survey ( i.e. people, objects, phenomena ) and about the scenes in which they occur. Data is being gathered by research workers through a carefully developed instrument ( questionnaire ) administered to persons identified via a sampling process. This is because, if informations are collected randomly, it will be hard to reply the research inquiries in a conclusive manner.

Prior to the release of the questionnaire, research workers conducted a pilot trial to polish the inquiries being used. Questionnaires were given to thirty ( 30 ) lectors from both genders within the targeted pool of respondents. This is done to look into whether the respondents could understand all the inquiries. Remarks and feedbacks given were gathered and some points considered obscure by these respondents were subsequently reworded before the concluding information aggregation.

3.4.1 Pilot Test

Pilot trial can be defined as preliminary trial or survey of the plan or rating activities to seek out processs and do any needful alterations or accommodations ( Zikmund, 2003 ) . A preliminary test or pilot trial of the survey is a really helpful manner to place jobs. There are some specific facets of the research that ever want to look at when do a pilot trial: credible description of the survey, the sum of clip it takes to finish the survey, jobs with the informations aggregation procedure, whether the participants guessed the hypothesis of the survey, and any inquiries the participants have about the research. The most critical issue to turn to in a pilot survey is the effectivity of the experimental use. If experimental processs do non work right, any informations that gathered are worthless.

Pilot proving is normally conducted after the preliminary version of questionnaire has been set up but before the large-scale study is being carried out. One of the advantages of carry oning a pilot survey is that it might give progress warning about where the chief research undertaking could neglect, where research protocols may non be followed, or whether proposed methods or instruments are inappropriate or excessively complicated ( Edwin & A ; Vanora, 2001 ) .

Research workers distributed 30 sets of pre-tested questionnaires to lectors in UTARs. Upon the aggregation of these questionnaires, Statistical Package for Social Science ( SPSS ) had been constructed in order to prove the dependability. One of the most popular dependability statistics in usage today is Cronbach ‘s alpha ( Cronbach, 1951 ) . This is because the dependability of graduated tables measured all variables is investigated by Cronbach ‘s alpha. Cronbach ‘s alpha determines the internal consistence or mean correlativity of points in a study instrument to estimate its dependability. Higher dependability is due to higher frequence of similar reply being selected by the respondents. The regulation of pollex for measuring alpha coefficient which is more than 0.9 is considered first-class, more than 0.8 is good, more than 0.7 is acceptable, more than 0.6 is questionable, more than 0.5 is hapless, and less than 0.5 is unacceptable ( George & A ; Mallery,2003 ) .

Each concept was being tested individually. The result is shown below. All the concept generate more than 0.7 except for Openness to see ( 0.583 ) . The debatable point was being identified and eliminated. Amendment was done by extinguishing Openness to experience- Question figure 1, 6, 8, 9, 10 ( L1, L6, L8, L9, L10 ) . The dependability trial for Openness to see was re-run and a new mark of 0.734 was obtained. Now, the questionnaire is said to accomplish the declared degree or dependability. This follows on by the distribution of 100 transcripts of questionnaires to the lectors who are in different module.

Table? : Dependability trial


Number of points ( N )

Cronbach ‘s Alpha

Emotional Stability


Openness to see





10 [ old ]

5 [ new ]









Thereafter, research workers did some corrections and amendments on the antecedently set questionnaire based on the feedback received in order to acquire a more dependable and accurate informations.

3.5 Measurement Scales

A graduated table is any series of points that are increasingly arranged harmonizing to value or magnitude into which an point can be placed harmonizing to its quantification. It is a uninterrupted spectrum or series of classs. The intent of grading is to stand for, normally quantitatively, an point ‘s, a individual ‘s or an event ‘s topographic point in the spectrum. There are four types of graduated table in concern research which are nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio graduated table ( Zikmund, 2003 ) .

3.3.1 Nominal Scale

Nominal graduated table represents the most unrestricted assignment of numbers. It is one that allows the research worker to delegate topics to certain classs or groups ( Sekaran, 2003 ) . Nominal graduated table besides is the simplest type of graduated table. The Numberss or letters assigned to objects serve as labels for designation ( Zikmund, 2003 ) . For illustration, the questionnaire inquiries of nominal graduated table that we are utilizing are gender, race, and highest instruction degree of the respondents in private higher instruction establishments.

3.3.2 Ordinal Scale

Ordinal graduated table arranges objects or options harmonizing to their magnitude ( Zikmund, 2003 ) . In add-on, it non merely categorizes the variable in such a manner as to denote differences among the assorted classs, it besides rank-orders the classs in some meaningful manner. With any variable for which the classs are to be ordered harmonizing to some penchant, the ordinal graduated table would be used. The penchant would be ranked and numbered 1, 2, and so on ( Sekaran, 2003 ) . For case, our questionnaire usage of ordinal graduated table is age.

3.3.3 Interval Scale

Interval graduated table allows us to execute certain arithmetical operations on the informations collected from the respondents ( Sekaran, 2003 ) . It does non merely indicate order, it measures order ( or distance ) in units of equal intervals. The location of the nothing point is arbitrary ( Zikmund, 2003 ) . It helps us to calculate agencies and standard divergences of the response on the variables. In other words, interval graduated table non merely groups persons harmonizing to certain classs but it besides measures the magnitude of the differences in the penchants among the persons. For illustration, interval graduated table found in our questionnaire is Likert graduated table.

3.6 Fieldwork

The whole survey took approximately five months to finish with the attempt contributed by each members and counsel from research supervisor. First of wholly, we took about one month to seek for information before make up one’s minding on the research subject. We found relevant information from all sorts of beginnings such as on-line databases, diaries and articles from university ‘s library, internet web site and etc. Relevant information are so gathered and referred to our supervisor for elucidation.

After corroborating the research subject, several treatments have been held between squad members and supervisor in polishing the research subject, formed research aims and hypotheses. Relevant information we gathered earlier are used in building chapter two which is literature reappraisal. After we determine on our mark sample, questionnaire was formed in around one hebdomad clip. 30 sets of pre-tested questionnaire are so distributed to lectors in private higher instruction establishments. Before the respondents start make fulling up the questionnaires, the responsible squad member gave a brief but precise account on the intent of the survey. This is to give the respondents an thought of what this research is all about, therefore higher truth of informations would be produced. The questionnaires were self-administrated with minimum aid from the squad members. Based on the feedback received from the 30 sets of pre-tested questionnaire, dependability trial are so conducted and equal amendments are made to the questionnaire.

In one month clip, a sum of 100 sets of questionnaire are distributed to private higher instruction establishment. All answered questionnaires are collected and consequences are being keyed into statistical package that is Statistical Software Package for Social Science ( SPSS ) . Last, analyses were reported based on the consequences obtained and decisions are drawn towards the survey. Research study was successfully produced within the clip frame as planned at earlier phase.

3.7 Data Analysis

Harmonizing to Cooper and Schindler ( 2006 ) , informations analysis is defined as the procedure of redacting and cut downing accumulated informations to a size that is manageable, easy to look for forms in developing sum-ups and using statistical techniques. As cited by Sekaran ( 2003 ) , informations analysis serves three aims which are acquiring a feel for the information ( descriptive analysis ) , proving the goodness of the informations ( scale measuring ) , and proving the hypotheses developed for the research ( illative analysis ) .

After finishing the questionnaire study and consequences are collected, the usage of computing machine package to analyse the information is needed. The information collected from respondents will be edited and coded into utile to guarantee the uniformity and completeness for informations entry intent. Malhotra and Peterson ( 2006 ) stated that informations redacting involves reexamining questionnaires to increase degree of truth and preciseness. This can be done through showing completed questionnaires to guarantee it is complete, consistent and legible.

Software Package for Social Sciences ( SPSS ) is the most widely used computing machine package to analyse informations rapidly and expeditiously. Therefore, SPSS v16.0 was used in this research survey in finishing informations analysis portion. There are three types of analysis method to prove on the research inquiry of this survey which are: ( 1 ) frequence analysis, ( 2 ) dependability analysis and ( 3 ) Pearson ‘s correlativity coefficient.

3.7.1 Descriptive Statistic

Descriptive statistics are used to depict or sum up information about a population or sample. Descriptive analysis is applied in the research to exemplify the features of sample for respondents and unwrap and arouse the general form of responses. Descriptive statistics involves the assemblage and collection of quantitative information used to sum up or depict observations ( David, 2003 ) . Descriptive statistics can be categorized into three groups which are cardinal inclination, scattering and frequence distribution. From the respondents ‘ descriptive survey, the demographic profiles are classified as gender, age, race, place, educational degree and matrimonial position. In short, descriptive statistics are merely depicting what is or what the information shows ( Trochim, 2006 ) .

3.7.2 Inferential Statistic

Inferential statistics are used to do illations or judgements about a population on the footing of a sample ( Zikmund, 2003 ) . Inferential statistics are statistics that license research workers to pull illation from sample informations. It includes the methods of generalizing, gauging, or foretelling the features of a population or existence based on a sample. Examples of illative statistics we used here is Pearson correlativity coefficient analysis. In short, illative statistics are seeking to make decisions that extend beyond the immediate informations entirely ( Trochim, 2006 ) .

3.7.3 Frequency Analysis

Frequency analysis refers to the transmutation of natural informations into a signifier that will assist in apprehension and interpretation, rearranging, telling and pull stringsing informations to supply descriptive information. It is besides used to cipher norms, frequence distributions and per centum distributions of the demographic information provided by the respondents ( Zikmund, 2003 ) . In this survey, research workers used pie charts and saloon graphs to analyse the demographic information of respondents such as gender, age, race, matrimonial position, etc.

3.7.4 Reliability Analysis

Dependability is to mensurate the grade of informations free from mistakes and hence yield consistent consequences. It provides information about the relationship between single points in the graduated table ( Zikmund, 2003 ) . This survey has selected the Cronbach Coefficient Alpha theoretical account to measure internal consistence. Harmonizing to the Cronbach Coefficient Alpha theoretical account, more than 0.9 is first-class, in between 0.8 to 0.9 is really good, in between 0.7 to 0.8 is consider good, in between 0.6 to 0.7 is moderate and below 0.6 is unacceptable. Variables with the value that falls below 0.6 reconsidered to be of hapless dependability and unacceptable. Reliability analysis will be conducted for Section B and C of the questionnaire before returns to farther informations analysis.

Table 2: Rules of Thumb about Cronbach ‘s Alpha Coefficient Size

Alpha Coefficient Range

Strength of Association

0.9 and above


0.8 – 0.9

Very Good

0.7 – 0.8


0.6 – 0.7


Less than 0.6


3.7.5 Pearson ‘s Correlation Coefficient Analysis

Pearson ‘s correlativity coefficient is used to analyse the nature, way and important of the bivariate relationship of the variables used in the survey, that is, the relationship between any two variables among the variables tapped in the survey ( Sekaran, 2003 ) . The correlativity coefficient can be either positive or negative and can hold values between -1.00 and +1.00, The higher value of coefficient correlativity indicates the stronger degree of association among the variables.

In this survey, Pearson Correlation Coefficient was conducted on the five concept ( i.e. Neuroticism ( Emotional Stability ) , Extraversion, Openness to see, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness ) individually against occupation public presentation ( dependent variable ) . This is done to prove the significance between the single five concepts as to how they are related to lector ‘s occupation public presentation.

The correlativity coefficient is ever between -1.0 and +1.0. There are three sorts of state of affairs, correlativity with the consequence +1.0 means that there is a perfect additive positive relationship, whereas -1.0 means a perfect additive negative relationship and 0 agencies that there is no relationship between the two variables. If r = A±0.91 to r = A±1.0 indicates a really strong relationship, A±0.71 to A±0.90 agencies strong relationship, A±0.41 to A±0.70 agencies moderate relationship, A±0.21 to A±0.40 agencies weak but definite relationship and A±0.01 to A±0.20 agencies little or about negligible relationship ( Hair, Babin, Money & A ; Samouel, 2005 ) .

Table 3: Rules of Thumb about Pearson ‘s Correlation Coefficient

Coefficient Scope

Strength of Association

A± .91 – A± 1.00

Very Strong

A± .71 – A± .90


A± .41 – A± .70


A± .21 – A± .40

Weak but definite relationship

A± .01 – A± .20

Slight or about negligible

Note. Adapted from Hair, Babin, Money, Samouel, ( 2003 ) . Necessities of Business Research Methods. Wiley Publishers.

3.8 Decision

In a nutshell, this chapter provides a position of how the research is being conducted and how the research instrument is being designed. Research workers first illustrate the “ spinal ” of the research by farther lucubrating on research approached, research techniques on informations, and measurement graduated tables. Then, it is followed by the finding of samples, informations aggregation technique, questionnaire design and information analysis techniques. All informations gathered from the questionnaire has been compiled and the ensuing informations and graphs placed in the following chapter. In the undermentioned chapter, the research consequences will be discussed. Tables and graphs are being used to show the consequences in a more effectual mode.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *