Provide for rating of the Leadership Development Process, leading preparation, and unit and single leading through the usage of bing rating systems and processes. This will guarantee proper sequencing of leader preparation and publicity.
Designate and resources a focal point to function as the integration bureau and the depository for leading and moralss stuffs to back up the person soldier, the Army in the field and the school system.
Integrate leading policy, philosophy, rating and preparation maps into all facets of Army activity.
Develop a plan to heighten bid clime throughout the Army which fosters leader enterprise, flexibleness, unity, trust, assertiveness unit coherence.
86. Leadership Development Model. The leading development theoretical account has three chief foundations. They are Institutional Training and Education, Duty and Operational Assignments and Self-development.
87. Institutional Training and Education. Institutional developing provides the chief foundation for Leadership Development, peculiarly in peacetime environment. It is the foundation in which unit commanding officers can construct, mould, and form leaders and in which the developing leaders can establish their self-development. The preparation establishments of the Malayan Army are the Army Schools and the Corps Schools. In these schools, all trainees are required to develop specific job-related accomplishments every bit good as leading accomplishments. Training is conducted on a progressive and consecutive mode to fix the person for higher duties. The preparation system is based on the Malayan Army Training System ( MATS )[ 1 ]. It includes all of the formal and informal preparation and instruction leaders receive while go toing Army and Corps schools. It is within the Army ‘s school system – from Officer Basic Course at the Army College ( KTD ) or Defense University ( UPNM ) to other Army Institutes that leaders acquired their accomplishments, cognition and attitude ( SKA ) , which are indispensable to choice leading. These same SKA, when tested, reinforced and enhanced by occupation assignments and self-development plans, enable leaders to achieve and prolong competence in the profession of weaponries[ 2 ].
88. Unit of measurement commanding officers are besides responsible for Leadership Development for their officers. The unit commanding officers must guarantee that their officers are send to allow proficient, developmental, skill making, and leading classs. Unit commanding officers should help their subsidiaries in staying cognition and competent demand for institutional preparation choice. This can be achieved through instruction, training and mentoring. To guarantee that the Army develops confident and competent leaders who can transport out their responsibilities and run into the demands of increased duty, Army and Corps schools must utilize the best instruction and preparation methods and how to get the better of hazards[ 3 ].
89. Duty Assignments. Duty assignments in both bid and staff assignments require leaders to utilize whatever they have learned through the procedure of formal preparation. It is the successful application of the cognition and accomplishments acquired from the preparation establishments that will construct the necessary assurance required of a leader. Duty assignment provides the chance for leaders to derive farther cognition and experience. It is during responsibility assignments that appraisals are made to prove their ability to use theoretical cognition in a practical scene. Doctrinal manuals and other publications provide the needful information, vision and an chance for coincident self-development. The commanding officer ‘s direct engagement in the development of leaders in their occupation is of import. The commanding officer demand to find the leader ‘s assignments, formulates and executes unit and single preparation plans. This includes bring forthing professional development plans and Acts of the Apostless as the unit ‘s primary instructor, counsellor and wise man.
90. Self-Development. Institutional preparation and responsibility assignments entirely do non guarantee that leaders will derive and keep competence. The calling of an army leader requires a womb-to-tomb committedness of self-development[ 4 ]. Self-initiated plans of single include group survey, research, professional reading, pattern, and self-assessment. The key to a successful self-development plan is accurate appraisal. Appraisals help to place leaders ‘ strengths and defects. Leaderships can develop individualized plans such as farther survey to get the better of their professional failings and construct upon those countries they determine as their strengths[ 5 ].
91. The Leadership Development Process. Leadership development in the Army is conducted at all degrees. The procedure of carry oning leading development consists of Responsibility, integrating, sequences, appraisal, feedback and rating.
a. Responsibilities. The duty to develop leaders should be reciprocally shared by the commanding officers of the preparation establishments, commanding officers and leaders in the formation and units, and the officers themselves. The wide duties in term of: Institutional Training and Education on State Learning Objectives, Provide Training, Provide Training Support, Conduct appraisal, Provide Feedback and Conduct Evaluation ; Duty Assignments on Provide chances, counsel and inspirations, Set organizational and single criterions, Conduct appraisal, Provide feedback, Determine counsellors and wise mans and Ensure assignments are consecutive and progressive, ; and Self Development on Conduct ain self-study, Provide professional reading counsel and Conduct self- appraisal.
B. Integration. To guarantee development occur in a progressive, consecutive, and effectual mode, the leader development system must stress entire integrating of the activities that take topographic point in the three foundations of leader development stated earlier. Leaderships work through the procedure developing and honing their accomplishments and, when assessed is ready, continue to that following degree.
c. Sequence. It is indispensable that throughout the development of a leader, the instruction, preparation, experience, appraisal, feedback, and reinforcement procedure occur in a logical and progressive sequence as shown in Figure 6. The undertakings, the demands of the unit, and the demonstrated potency of the leader are kept aggressively in focal point and must be balanced at all times.
Figure 6: The Process and Sequence the Malayan Army Leadership Development
Beginning: Malayan Army Publication MD 0.2 TD, Concept of Leadership Development for
the Malayan Army ( Provisional ) 2002
d. Assessment is a method used to find public presentation, proficiency and potency of a leader. Ideally, appraisal is characterized by an nonsubjective judgement against known criterions. The senior officer must discourse and, if necessary clarify these criterions and outlooks with low-level leaders early in the development procedure. At the unit and organisational degree, appraisals help senior leaders in developing assignment forms, developing programs, and developmental plans for their subsidiaries.
e. Feedback. Feedback is an intermediate measure between appraisal and rating. Useful feedback is a clear, formative counsel related to the procedure, criterion, or result of an event. Feedback allows the senior and low-level leaders to plan appropriate support or redress plans. After many feedback chances, senior leaders should carry on a comprehensive guidance Sessionss with the low-level leader.
g. Evaluation. An rating is a papers, lasting record of public presentation, cognition, and capablenesss covering a specified period through Yearly Confidential Report. It is the formal evaluation of past public presentation. Evaluation is the cumulative consequence of old appraisals, feedback, and support or redress attempts. At the terminal of the rating stage, support and redress should be conducted[ 6 ].
h. Military officers Leader Development. The leaders will be developed through the combination of military preparation, occupation assignments, and self-development. The officer ‘s institutional preparation Begins during officer plebe preparation at the Army College or National Defense University or its tantamount class overseas. After that, the officers will go to assorted calling and functional classs based on their Weaponries and Service. The Basic calling classs are the Platoon Commander ‘s Tactics Course, the Grade 3 Staff and Tactics Course and Grade 2 Staff and Tactics Course. Those that made the virtue required are so selected to go to the Staff College Course and the Defense College Course or its ‘ equivalent.
92. Leadership Development Support System. The success of the Malayan Army Leadership Development Program depends much on the support it receives. Given the province of Leadership Development in the Army, the Leadership Development Support System ( LDSS ) is established that provide the mechanism to pull off and see it through. The LDSS consists of two constituents: Human Resource Department ( HRD ) , The Army Inspector General Department ( IG Army ) and Training constitutions and field units. Evaluation must be made to all officers to guarantee leading development plans are carried out in a progressive, consecutive, and in conformity to the Army philosophy. They besides guarantee that the entire integrating of the three foundations of leading development, i.e. Institutional Training and Education, responsibility assignments, and single self-development is effectual.
MALAYSIAN ARMY PROCESS ON SELECTION OF OFFICERS
93. The procedure of choice and basic preparation of officers in the Malayan Army antecedently is through four channels. The first channel the officers are commissioned as alumnuss ( Malayan Certificate of Education or Diploma holders ) from Malayan National Defense University as Captain with assorted field of First Degree such as Engineering, Computer Science etc. and the length of plebe preparation is 4 to5 old ages. The alumnuss will be commissioned either to the Army, Navy or Air Force. The 2nd channel is through The Army College where there is no demand for First Degree and merely Malayan Certificate of Education of secondary school. They will graduate as sheepskin holder in Management after commissioned as Lieutenant and to the Army merely. The length of the plebe preparation is 18 month. The 3rd channel is for alumnuss that already hold a sheepskin or first grade in any field and they will be train as plebe alumnuss in the Army College for 9 months. They will be commissioned to the Army merely as Lieutenant. This channel besides includes the Reserve Officers Training Units ( ROTU ) officers that have been commissioned as voluntary officers when they are analyzing in universities/college and besides particular responsibility officers such as spiritual officers, instruction officers etc. For particular responsibility officers like physicians they will be trained in Army Medical Institute for their basic officers developing for 2 months. However they are new alterations on the basic preparation channel in the Army get downing from 2012. There will be merely three channel for officers for basic preparation and commissioned to the Army. All the channel are still exist but there is no more basic preparation for officers through The Army College for Malayan Certificate of Education holder of secondary school.
94. The Army procedure of choice officers foremost will be advertised in the media for any channels. There are certain standards that are different from other profession such as physically and mentally fit, have leading qualities and have to past a physical and mental trial during the choice and interview. Even the immature alumnuss that have first-class classs in their sheepskin or first grade but if they can non go through the choice procedure, they will non be selected to undergone officers basic preparation. Based on the rigorous standards on officers choice, the Army hope that merely the qualified immature alumnuss will be commissioned to the Army and they are first degree holder that should be talented and intellectuals. With the new displacement on the standards of academic making, the Army is seeking to acquire talented and intellectuals ‘ alumnuss to fall in the Army but unluckily, the Army has to vie with public and private sectors that the mean wages are far better and the life as civilian is wholly different from the Army life. Even though the Army is seeking to advance and market itself to the populace but the disbelieving and narrow public perceptual experience about the Army make it hard to pull the brilliant, physically and mentally fit people to fall in the Army.
RESPONSES ON THE CURRENT LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT FOR OFFICERS IN THE MALAYSIAN ARMY
95. In fixing this research, a study was conducted by giving questionnaires to 100 officers in Ministry of Defense on all degree of ranks of the Army about Leadership Development. The chief inquiries were about basic constituents on Leadership Development such as, “ Do you cognize Leadership Development Concepts in the Army? “ , “ Do you cognize Leadership Development Model in the Army? “ , and “ Do you cognize Leadership Development Process in the Army? ” Based on the replies, approximately 70 % of the officers did non cognize all the three chief constituents of Leadership Development in the Malayan Army. Most of the officers knew about their calling patterned advance by go toing calling classs and to execute good on their occupation assignment that related to the military undertakings and non to non-military undertakings or secondary undertakings. Since the study is non so utile, some interviews were conducted with officers from the rank of Major General to the lowest rank of Lieutenant with different assignment/posts, experiences, genders and backgrounds to acquire qualitative responses on Leadership Development with guided inquiries based on their occupation assignments. They were interviewed to hold on perceptual experience and sentiment on current Leadership Development Programs in the Army and the results of the officers when executing their functions and undertakings.
96. Major General Dato ‘ Abdul Rahim bin Mohd Yusuff, Head of Mission of International Monitoring Team – Mindanao ( he was the General Officer Commanding of 4th Infantry Division ) said that the current Malayan Leadership Programs is good in term of theory but in practical, the officers particularly juniors and in-between officers are still missing of experience, cognition and accomplishments in term of non military undertakings and non-military undertakings. There is besides deficiency of ego development of the officers to heighten their public presentation. Brigadier General Dato ‘ Ismet Nayan bin Ismail, Commandant of Malaysian Armed Forces Staff College ( MAFSC ) , ( he was tenth Brigade Commander ( Parachute ) said that the Leadership Development Programs is sufficient and merely necessitate to reexamine of any alterations in the hereafter. He said that the criterions of officers ‘ competence presents are really different from his yearss. The officers now are largely non physically and mentally fit and could non take by illustration. They are besides deficiency of assurance and competence to execute good on executing their undertakings either in the operational or exercises country. He besides observed as the Commandant of MAFSC, most of the pupils are missing in joint services experiences before come ining the college. He acknowledged the ground is they are non exposed to patronize joint services exercising at unit degrees.
97. Colonel Mardzuki bin Hj Mohammad, Director of Human Resource Department, Army Headquarters ( he was besides Commanding Officer ( CO ) of 4th Battalion of Royal Malay Regiment ) said that based on his observation when he was a CO and now as Human Resources Director of the Army, he found that most officers particularly junior officers lack of ego development in term of geting new accomplishments and cognition to heighten their capableness as competent leaders. Most of them would seek really best to acquire a good class in calling classs merely to guarantee they were in the running for rank publicity but non to get the most cognition from the class attended. The publicity system that is based on virtue on calling classs classs is one of the factors why the officers wanted to acquire good classs. Lieutenant Colonel Rashidin bin Ab Rashid, Commanding Officer of 12th Royal Malay Regiment said based on his observation on the Leadership Development in the Army, he found out that the theory is sufficient but the execution and coordination between preparation establishments, responsibility and operational assignments and self-development is still missing. The officers in the units usually have to make a batch of undertakings, activities and committedness such as operational, unit and formation preparation, ceremonial responsibilities, go toing classs, unit assemblage, visits by superior officers, province responsibilities, etc and usually out of the units. As commanding officer, sometimes it is non easy for him to supervise, supply feedback and mentoring his officers because most of the clip they are non in the unit. For Leadership Development to be successful, this rating is really of import for the officers so that they know what their advancement is.
98. Major Zainuddin bin Ramli, Staff Officer Grade 2, Army Policy and Planning Department, Army Headquarters said that as staff officer in the Policy and Planning of the officers and other ranks, he has to maintain gait with the alterations with the policy of officers ‘ choice and the authorised officers manning degree. Even the Army is still under strength, but the Army policy on choice should be based on quality instead than measure, so most of the possible campaigners either non selected to be officers or they will neglect during the officers ‘ basic preparation. There are besides some prioritization on the distribution of freshly commissioned officers to be topographic point on the right Corps and Services. It all depends on specific demand of the Corps and Services and non based on the demand of Leadership Development required by the Army. Captain Azman bin Latif, Staff Officer Grade 3, Operation and Training Department, Army Headquarters said that his undertakings as staff officer at the Operation and Training Department largely deal with the choice and processing of officers for abroad classs and abroad bilateral and many-sided exercisings. He found out that most of the job he is confronting on the suited campaigner for the abroad classs particularly on go throughing the English Proficiency Test. Most of the selected campaigner that attended the trial failed. The same thing besides happened when officers involved in exercising with other states where some junior officers could non execute really good because of deficiency of English proficiency. He suggested that Leadership Development should be concentrating on English proficiency as portion of instruction and preparation.
99. Captain Fauziah binti Daud, Staff Officer Grade 3, P4 Branch, 4th Infantry Brigade ( Mechanize ) , is one of a female officers in the Malayan Army said that the calling patterned advance for the female officers in the Malayan Army is rather limited. Even the Leadership Development Programs besides catered for the female officers but by nature as adult female, some operational and duty assignment can non be done by them. However, there is a displacement in the Army that all ladies officers must go to Young Officers Tactics Course where antecedently was non mandatory. Even it was a tough class, but the female officers had the chances to larn more about tactical operations and are tantamount with the male officers in term of tactical cognition. In term of developing Institution and instruction, the Army provide the same chance as the male officers but for the responsibility and operational assignments, the chance for the female officers are rather limited which consequence they do non hold adequate operational experiences. For the self-cultivation, female and male officers are in the same land and it is up to single officers to seek for betterment on his/her cognition and accomplishments. As Platoon Commander, 6th Royal Malay Regiment, Lieutenant Mohd Khairul Amin bin Shuhaimi said he is still new in the Army and non attended any calling class including Young Officer Tactics Course. Based on his experience in the unit, he found out that usually he has to make a batch of undertakings either military or non-military undertakings. Sometimes he could non run into his soldiers because they have to make some other undertakings outside of the unit. He besides does non hold clip to read and better his cognition and accomplishments and have any experience either on military or non-military undertakings. Sometimes he felt that he was really baffled to execute his undertakings because of his rawness and there was no counsel from his immediate supervisor which is his Military officer Commanding ( OC ) . He could seldom see his OC to acquire feedback and rating on his leading public presentation because the OC was excessively busy with undertakings outside of the unit. He thinks that his Leadership Development could hold been better if he could acquire a proper counsel, feedback on his public presentation or mentoring by his OC or other senior officers. He besides believe that for the preparation, his OC will be after for him to go to suited military classs to heighten his cognition, accomplishments and experience.
100. Based on the findings of the interview conducted from the highest ranks of officers to the lowest rank, the decision is Leadership Development in the Malayan Army is in the right path but the job is its execution. The officers particularly juniors and in-between officers are still missing the experience, cognition and accomplishments particularly in non military undertakings because there are no specific classs conducted by the Army preparation establishments for them. There is besides deficiency of ego development of the officers to heighten their public presentation, the officers largely non physically and mentally fit and deficiency of assurance to execute good on executing their undertakings either in the operational or exercises country and deficiency experience in joint services exercising. Most officers try really best to acquire a good class in calling classs merely to guarantee they were in the running for rank publicity but non to get the most cognition from the class attended. There is deficiency of coordination between preparation establishments, responsibility and operational assignments and self-development for the officers. The officers in the units usually have to make a batch of undertakings, activities and committedness, no monitoring, supplying feedback and mentoring to junior officers, missing English proficiency, limited calling patterned advance for the female officers and immature officers seldom exercise leading in the units.
Decision ON THE MALAYSIAN ARMY LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT
101. The Leadership Development in the Malayan Army is good developed in term of its models, construct, theoretical account and procedure to be implemented. It needs to be good implemented and coordinated by all spheres preparations establishments and instruction, responsibility and operational assignments and self-development. It emphasizes the duties of Leadership Development in which developing leaders should non merely rest on the preparation and instruction establishments but should besides be every bit shared by all commanding officers and persons themselves. These foundations will function the footing to develop future leaders. To vouch its success, the operation of the LDSS is important. More significantly, all relevant bureaus must be to the full committed, implement it and see it through. With committedness, the Army will win in holding professional military leaders that it needs.
102. There are some issues on the execution of the Leadership Development based on the interviewed conducted with officers with different ranks, assignment/post, experience, gender and background. Some of the of import issues that should be incorporated in the scheme for the Leadership Development in the Malayan Army are deficiency of juniors and in-between officers experience, cognition and accomplishments on non-military undertakings, deficiency of motive of ego development, deficiency of operational and preparation experiences, deficiency of coordination between preparation establishments, responsibility and operational assignments and self-development for the officers, batch of assortment of undertakings in the units, activities and committedness in the units, deficiency of proper rating and feedback, deficiency in English proficiency, limited calling patterned advance for the female officers and immature officers seldom exercise leading in the units. Therefore all of these factors should be considered while reexamining the Army Leadership Development Programs and the right scheme to better it.
KEY ISSUES OF MAJOR FINDING
Summary OF Determination
103. In any organisation, there is a demand of a leader who will put the strategic way and supply counsel to farther heighten the effectivity and efficiency of the organisation to the following degree and conveying the organisation to where they have ne’er been. The ground forces as an organisation, to carry through their functions, undertakings and duties besides needs leaders. The Army requires leaders that extremely capable in term of cognition, accomplishments and attitudes to animate the soldiers to confront future challenges. These officers will travel through Leadership Development Program to guarantee that they continue maintain abreast of the altering security environment, spread outing functions of the Army and the complexness of future wars with extremely advanced engineering and annihilating impact. The new challenges face by the Army particularly leaders are the spread outing functions of the non-traditional menaces and undertakings such as MOOTW, anti-terrorism, UN peacekeeping and peace support operations, counter insurgence operations and spread outing non-military undertakings.
104. At the same clip, since there is no existent conventional menace, there has been an addition demand in state edifice or non-military functions amongst for the Army. This is the perceptual experience of the populace that the Army is expected to go more engage and cooperate with other stakeholders such as public and private bureaus so that it is seen to be portion of the overall state edifice attempt. Therefore, there is a quandary exist where the individuality of professional Army and the civilization between the civilian and military has posed many challenges by the leaders in the Army to maintain military warrior spirit and military imposts and traditions compared to soft accomplishment required on executing these new functions. In order to make that, the Army has to make up one’s mind on the right scheme on Leadership Development for their officers based on the current state of affairs, future challenges and its enlargement functions. Leadership development is really of import in the Army because officers as leaders have the of import functions for the transmutation of the Army to the hereafter.